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Unity State neglected in new South Sudan cabinet- citizens say

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By Bonifacio Taban Kuich

August 29, 2011 (BENTIU) - The formation of the first cabinet in the newly independent South Sudan has left many people in Unity state unhappy that not more politicians from their state were selected.

Earlier this month after South Sudan’s independence declaration on July 9, the republic’s president Salva Kiir Mayardit said he wanted to form a broad based government chosen on the basis of competence and qualifications of individuals rather than tribal affiliations.

The new 29 member cabinet was announced last week but did not include any ministers from Unity State.

On Monday many citizens in Unity State described the president’s appointments as overlooking and neglecting the state. Unity State was awarded three assistant ministers but no full ministers.

However, Simon Maguek Gai one of the speakers at Unity State’s parliament told Sudan Tribune on Monday that he did not believe the state had been left out of the government.

"If Unity State were not awarded ministerial positions, it was because there was tough competition from other areas of South Sudan," he said. Unity State, he added, produced the most votes for independence in South Sudan self determination referendum in January, producing nearly half a million pro-secession votes.

Gai described the complaints of Unity State citizens as “baseless” saying he sees now neglect in the current appointments. "If people think they are left out in these ministerial posts let them talk to their vice president Riek Machar Teny, who is from Unity State".

On Monday Gatluak Pech Dak an opposition MP from the Sudan African National Union (SANU) told Sudan Tribune that new government appointments were logical and involved other political parties.

He added that South Sudanese should focus on practicing democratic governance and developing the country, which is one of the world’s poorest nations.

(ST)

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  • 31 August 2011 08:40, by Grader

    Apology made in wrong places and apology accepted in wrong places? Whats up with it?

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    • 31 August 2011 09:00, by sunny

      The game is over, the cabinet is formed and the only state with the highest registered voters during referendum and the oil producing state is now forgotten after boosting the vote of self determination and feeding the whole nation with its oil. What a selection!!!!!!!!!!!!

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    • 31 August 2011 09:26, by Jeti

      Unity state, let’s watch and wait what next will H.E. Gen. Field Marshall Kiir Mayardit do to us. Our state was left out due to some reasons. Nuer community oyeee.

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      • 31 August 2011 10:17, by victor sani

        Hi Jeti

        I,m really sure the Unity State can stop compaining because the VP is from Unity State.
        also as all nuer they should not Complain because the minister of Defence is from Nuer Community.so its look that they are very Luck to have those positions .

        thanks God Bless all.

        Victor Moses Kenyi

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      • 31 August 2011 14:14, by Kondit

        My dear readers, brothers, sisters and my parents, South Sudan is our nation and its success or failure lies in our own hands. It is my humble and honest request to you all the compatriots that let’s look at the things that will steer forward our nation rather than grouping our ourselves according to our small communities. Whatever appointment H.E Kiir Mayardit has made is for well-being of the entire South Sudanese nationals. So let’s stand cautioned against practices that can tear apart our national interests. I believe H.E made those appointments not based on state, tribe or community but I sincerely believe they were appointed for the service of the entire nation but not to fulfill interests of specified group of individuals, tribes or communities. My fellow intellectuals, we should resist such politics and focus on issues that are broad based, national building, healing and reconstruction of our nation. The future of our posterity is in our hands and if we don’t lay a strong and concrete foundation for them, then we are bound to fail ourselves, our nation and the posterity of South Sudan. May God bring peace and understanding into our hearts to love one another and the nation moves on.

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        • 31 August 2011 22:59, by Lok T Simon

          Dear Kondit,

          I am with you man, keep up and thank you for your pieces of advices that you have really tried your level best to highlighting the facts and sincerely to our brothers and sisters who are actually still floating on water without knowing the direction where they are heading to. If you are familair with Southern Sudan proverbs which says: don’t prepare somebody to come to the light when he/she is ready to prepare for the worst of him/herself, however, help him/her when he/she is ready to prepare for the best of him/herself.

          Thanks.

          Lok T. Simon.

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    • 1 September 2011 05:52, by Cadaai ?o?

      Historian and Identity Advocacy View:

      Hello Unity State citizens, you guys have three powerful people in government as they are:

      (a) Dr. Riek Machar-V.president

      (b) Taban Deng-Governor

      (c) Paulino Matiep-Sinior in military.

      And many others I don’t know.

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    • 1 September 2011 05:53, by Cadaai ?o?

      Historian and Identity Advocacy View:

      Hello Unity State citizens, you guys have three powerful people in government as they are:

      (a) Dr. Riek Machar-V.president

      (b) Taban Deng-Governor

      (c) Paulino Matiep-Sinior in military.

      And many others I don’t know.

      “Good people will be guided by honesty; dishonesty will destroy those who are not trustworthy.” Proverbs 11:3 NCV.

      “Teach me to do Your will, for You are my God; Your Spirit is good. Lead me in the land of uprightness.” Psalms 143:10 NKJV.
      “Who is this to amend God creations, the one who makes an amendment, this person, I would say is against God. If this problem of mine is sent to God, I will win this case.” By John Garang de Mabior

      “But for the sake of finding the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth.” By Daniel Bushery Daniel

      “Dinka Twic-east is a reclusive, peaceful and principled community- it has NEVER embarked on an attack on other tribes, and it does NOT…” Source: www.sudantribune.com

      I don’t know if Dr. Riek Machar has good people who are advising him. Why I say so? It is because Dr. Riek Machar is being misled or being used by Dinka Bor people who are now clashing with Dinka Twic East about their attempts as they think they will steal Dinka Twic East and Dinka Twic West history and identity. So the Dinka Bor people are in desperate to do just that. But Dinka Twic East people are just take it easy one at times until they will reach their truth when the time come.

      Also, there is nothing so call Dinka Bor massacre, for that name they just try to gets credits for the event while they were not affected that much by the incident. In God (Nhialic) true stand, it was Dinka Twic East massacre because of Dinka Twic East being the tribe of Dr. John Garang de Mabior. However, if we include our brothers and sisters of Dinka in region, it calls Southeastern Dinka massacre (Those tribes are Dinka Bor, Dinka Twic East & Dinka Duk)or you can call it Eastern Dinka Massacre or Jonglei Dinka Massacre.

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  • 31 August 2011 10:01, by Aleu

    Please tell Dak that, this Cabinets for South Sudan, I belief it is the best ever establishing unlikely the Khartoum Cabinets when Arab of 48% population were 80% in the government while, they are minority in the Old Sudan national and 20% were all Black African including Southern Sudan meanwhile, the Black African in the Old Sudan national were about 60% population. I think this Cabinet is absolutely fair because it has been set according to tribal demanding and there is nothing for you guys to make complain about.

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    • 31 August 2011 10:32, by makuei tinyjok

      Please, tell Dak not to cause and alarms to Unity State Citizens by inciting them that, they are being left out in the Newly appointed Cabinets, These Appoitment is very inclusive, at the National level.
      You igitators, allow the Governemt to begin their work, this is how you begin the crises, there is no sens of even making a complain,your complain is baseless.
      Inclusives Government oyee!!!!!!!!

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      • 31 August 2011 12:43, by Runrach

        Dear readers,

        First and foremost, I would like to get it clearly that Unity State is not a single tribe State as some of you stated.

        Secondly,the omission of Unity State in Ministerial postions wasn’t because of VP being hail from Unity State that wasn’t the case at all, and if that fairness were to be applied therefore Warrap a single sub-tribe could have not held 4 ministerial positions apart from 5 deputies including the above 3 vital positions held by Warrap and yettaw they have Kiir as president as well as police general inspector, Central bank governor and chief justice.

        Thirdly, I am sure RSS citizens are well awared that Unity State the backbone and mother of all in term of resources, again if fairness were to be put in place therefore those of Warrap, Jonglei, Central Equatoria and UpperNile should have been given 2/3 each and one from them and given to Unity State instead of deputies. Unfortunately Kiir lost that an equal share and applied a donkey share in his cabinets.

        Anyway, it is a good lesson for our governor learn from his boss.

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        • 1 September 2011 05:33, by BBCs

          shame on fucken Nuer. what would people do in national ministerial just to encourage tribalism.you are lucky to have the defense minister in your state but it would not happen next time. talking about oil when did the you benefit from this oil, it is use by north. you don’t even know where this oil flow. you are all bull shit

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  • 31 August 2011 10:03, by khan junior

    Somebody somewhere must be responsible for all these.If you keenly looks at the three sides of the coin you could surely smell a rat.The Unity State Speaker term the public reaction as "BASELESS" Yes he said BASELESS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    They said when you saw a rat half of it body is immense in it hole while it head is out know it’s suspecting something somewhere.

    10410 Khan

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    • 31 August 2011 15:13, by goyuom

      Bentiu has been left out. i beg please can you cold down at the movement. i believe God and international community are looking at our new Goverment whether it will be by tribalism or drinking alcohol in home and away. God will punish those who miss treat his children

      By Goyuom

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  • 31 August 2011 11:42, by Tambura

    Oh we have been left out it is cold it is rain no it is hot, that is human being nature, they never stop complaining.Stop complaining the second man in the country is from your state that is anough because that man will be president himself one day. You cry like bitch will never do him well in future.your complaining is baseless. We should wait to see what kind of service this cabinet will deliver, they don’t do their job well we can change them in next election. As I said many times south Sudan need new faces new ideas, therefor I want you to vote for me in next election I will make you proud of you country stop crying.

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  • 31 August 2011 15:50, by Josh

    To be honest, kiiri has done wrong things. There is going to be expensive price for his politico. Without the suport of Nuer, shuluk, equatoria, Dinka wouldn’t achived independent from Arabs. If tribal war breakdown this time, the world ’ll suport Arabs to take over the whole sudan. Shame on you Animals

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    • 31 August 2011 20:46, by Kondit

      Why should we talk of war when the whole world is struggling for world peace. We should think of other alternative ways of settling misunderstandings and disputes within our systems. Do you think fighting is the best option? of course it isn’t the best otherwise if it was, then we wouldn’t have turned to round table to settle the 21 years war. Why talk of Dinka as being different group, all the people belong to South Sudan regardless of tribal differences.

      First, we are all south Sudanese and thereafter, we can now identify ourselves with our small tribes. When we travel abroad, we use South Sudan passport, not tribal passport, so you young intellectuals encouraging tribalism, nepotism and sectarianism will never take us anywhere and as such we shall derailed off our leaders the rightful path they we were taking. We shouldn’t narrow down the opportunities for development by writing such comments. What will other nationals look at us? Should we give them the impression that south Sudanese are the most tribalistic in the whole world, of course not, because we have the integrity and reputation to maintain within ourselves and outside.

      Finally, my fellow intellectuals, let’s portray political maturity in the manner in which we handle our affairs rather than exposing our internal differences in such a manner that expresses only individualistic and self-centered interests. Why can’t we think of other avenues that are of better development and benefit to all regardless of the tribal grouping. If all the writings and criticisms that we have been doing over the net are put to positive use in black and white, our country would have been the most beautiful because we all like criticizing others rather than working.

      Food for thought, Assuming you were the president of the Republic of South Sudan, and every time you visit the net, you find criticism, what would you do? Why should we complain all the times? Is there no single moment of appreciation? We should reason objectively as educated people.

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  • 31 August 2011 22:46, by Dakkin

    I am suspicious why no position has been given to Gatdet or Kiir still planning to assasinate him

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  • 1 September 2011 02:25, by Gogrialboys

    Dear readers,
    I’m sorry that some of you may find my comment offensive, but it is the fact that I would like to point out here. I don’t want to go back to the history of liberation,and what has happened during struggle, but to tell those people who want to tarnish the Nuer community. This community has so many respected generals who has never changed or draged away by those who were siding the enemy of the South during struggle.
    They remained committed to the cause until the people of the Southsudan realize peace, and achieved their independence. Those individuals earn our trust as people of Southsudan, and I applauded the appointment that the president Kiir and his government made recently. I know many people will not agree with me in a sense that, the community that has many educated people, is being ran by uneducated individuals. I have seen this in the early eighties, nineties, and still going on now.

    Look, Peter Cadet was blame by many people in Nuer community of why he come back and abolish his rebellion against the government. If I may ask where in the world, can you fight your own people, or your government for that matter? It is only here in th Southsudan. Peter cadet has many southsudanese blood in his hands, than any other rebel group combine, and yet our president still offer to them an amnesty. This is seen by Nuer when cadet responded to the call of his president as a bribe to him. When are brothers from Nuer community who are educated, going to be leaders rather than followers like the recent MP, who was just follow Peter cadet?

    I fail to understand why people always complain of positions, instead of service delivery and development to our people. Coming to my point, Nuer community has distiguished and nationalists that deserve our support and thanks as they begin their duties. Besides, my brothers from nuer community are still complaining while the government that has recently been formed is theirs. this may make someone wander to what do this people want, whether a government without dinka, or anuer government?
    If you can see, I think one may say that Kiir has made many concession to Nuer community than even his people and other tribes. I think it is the time for nuer intellectuals to be leaders, so that this kind of tribal divide has to be eradicated.

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  • 1 September 2011 05:50, by Cadaai ?o?

    Historian and Identity Advocacy View:

    Hello Unity State citizens, you guys have three powerful people in government as they are:

    (a) Dr. Riek Machar-V.president

    (b) Taban Deng-Governor

    (c) Paulino Matiep-Sinior in military.

    And many others I don’t know.

    “Good people will be guided by honesty; dishonesty will destroy those who are not trustworthy.” Proverbs 11:3 NCV.

    “Teach me to do Your will, for You are my God; Your Spirit is good. Lead me in the land of uprightness.” Psalms 143:10 NKJV.
    “Who is this to amend God creations, the one who makes an amendment, this person, I would say is against God. If this problem of mine is sent to God, I will win this case.” By John Garang de Mabior

    “But for the sake of finding the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth.” By Daniel Bushery Daniel

    “Dinka Twic-east is a reclusive, peaceful and principled community- it has NEVER embarked on an attack on other tribes, and it does NOT…” Source: www.sudantribune.com

    I don’t know if Dr. Riek Machar has good people who are advising him. Why I say so? It is because Dr. Riek Machar is being misled or being used by Dinka Bor people who are now clashing with Dinka Twic East about their attempts as they think they will steal Dinka Twic East and Dinka Twic West history and identity. So the Dinka Bor people are in desperate to do just that. But Dinka Twic East people are just take it easy one at times until they will reach their truth when the time come.

    Also, there is nothing so call Dinka Bor massacre, for that name they just try to gets credits for the event while they were not affected that much by the incident. In God (Nhialic) true stand, it was Dinka Twic East massacre because of Dinka Twic East being the tribe of Dr. John Garang de Mabior. However, if we include our brothers and sisters of Dinka in region, it calls Southeastern Dinka massacre (Those tribes are Dinka Bor, Dinka Twic East & Dinka Duk)or you can call it Eastern Dinka Massacre or Jonglei Dinka Massacre.

    "UNHCR & REFWORD Report about South Sudan’s war civil History during the movement"

    "Key South Sudan Individuals Named in This Report"

    "Note: The names are listed alphabetically by second name (underlined), unless the person is known by another name."

    "Abel Alier Kwai Respected southern politician living in Khartoum, former vice president of Sudan and head of the Southern Region during part of the autonomy period. Author of Southern Sudan: Too Many Promises Dishonored (1990). (Bor Dinka)

    Tito Biel Chuol Western Upper Nile zonal commander in SSDF in May 1999 in charge of the attack on the oil company rig at Ryer/Thar Jath, Western Upper Nile. Instrumental in securing field alliance with Cmdr. Salva Kiir Mayandit of the SPLA. Originally in the SPLA, joined the Riek Machar breakaway faction in 1991 and followed him into the government in 1997, becoming part of the SSDF, and then in 2000 part of Machar’s SPDF. In late 2002 he realigned himself with the SSDF (pro-government). (Dok Nuer)

    Kuong Danhier Gatluak Head of security of the SPDF in 1999. Joined the SPLA and defected with Riek Machar in 1991. When Riek Machar was in the government, Kuong Danhier was chief security officer for the SSDF, based in Nairobi. Joined Riek Machar when Machar defected from the government in early 2000. (Nyuong Nuer)

    Taban Deng Gai Spokesman for Machar’s SPDF forces in Nairobi, Kenya from December 2000 until June 2001, when he rejoined the SPLA. Originally joined the SPLA in the 1980s and left to join his relative by marriage, Riek Machar, when he split from the SPLA in 1991. In 1996 he joined the government with Riek Machar and became a leader of the political party they formed, the UDSF. He won an election for governor of Unity State/Western Upper Nile in December 1997 and was expelled from the governorship and the state in May 1999 by Maj. Gen. Paulino Matiep. He fled to Khartoum. He was appointed state minister for roads and communications in January 2000 by President Bashir and defected from the government in December 2000, and joined Machar’s new faction, the SPDF, until he decided to rejoin the SPLA. (Leek/Western Jikany Nuer)

    Michael Wal Duany Head of the SSLM as of late 1999 to the current time. Dr. Duany represented the Nuer intellectuals in the diaspora at the Wunlit Nuer-Dinka West Bank peace and reconciliation meeting of March 1999; formerly with the Workshop on Political Theory and Policy Analysis at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana, U.S. Based in Akobo, Upper Nile. (Lou Nuer)

    John Garang de Mabior Commander-in-chief of the SPLA and head of the SPLM. Member of Anyanya briefly at the end of the first civil war in 1972, and was incorporated into the Sudan army, earned a PhD in the U.S. in agricultural/environmental studies, and having attained the rank of colonel in the Sudan army, was a founder of the SPLM/A in Ethiopia in 1983. He supported a united secular Sudan against internal SPLA rivals (separatist Anyanya II) in 1983 and won out, with backing from Ethiopia’s president Haile Mengistu Meriam, continuing in control of the SPLM/A today. (Twic/Tuic [East] Dinka/Twic East County)

    Peter Gatdet Yaka Former Sudanese army officer sent to Iraq to fight against the Iranians in the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s. He joined the SPLA and left it in 1991 with Riek Machar. He was assigned to Cmdr. Paulino Matiep’s Bul Nuer forces as an officer, and when they split off from the SSDF he became a key commander in Commander Matiep’s SSUM/A pro-government militia. He fought on the behalf of the government against the SSDF forces under Cmdr. Tito Biel in Block 5A in 1999 for control of Block 5A. He and his forces mutinied against Maj. Gen. Paulino Matiep in September 1999 and fought against the government. For several months he coordinated his activities with the SSDF (under Cmdr. Tito Biel/Peter Paar) against the government, and attacked various oil targets in Western Upper Nile/Unity State. In early 2000 he joined the SPLA. He began fighting Cmdr. Riek Machar’s SPDF forces (under Cmdr. Peter Paar, formerly his SSDF adversary in 1999) in July 2000. During this round, he was anti-government and the Machar forces were pro-government. After disagreements reportedly about military discipline with the SPLA, he rejoined the government’s militia forces in late 2002. (Bul Nuer)

    Elijah Hon Top (deceased 2000) SSDF chief of staff under the Khartoum Peace Agreement. After Riek Machar resigned unexpectedly from the government in January 2000, Cmdr. Elijah Hon Top, a Lou Nuer from Ayod, became the spokesman for the SSDF and the UDSF in Khartoum. Formerly with the SPLA and Machar’s breakaway faction in 1991, he joined the government with Machar in 1997. (Gaawar Nuer)
    Kerubino Kuanyin Bol (deceased September 1999) Anyanya officer, then incorporated into the Sudan army after 1972, he was leader of the Bor mutineers whose rebellion lead to the formation of the SPLA in Ethiopia in 1983. Jailed by Garang for conspiracy in 1987, he escaped in 1992 and in 1993 joined Riek Machar’s breakaway rebel group. By 1994 his Dinka militia was directly supplied by the Sudanese army from his home, the garrison town of Gogrial, Bahr El Ghazal. Defected to the SPLA in January 1998, and split with the SPLA later in that year and received protection from his in-law, Maj. Gen. Paulino Matiep, in Mankien. Killed by forces of Cmdr. Peter Gatdet after they mutinied from Paulino Matiep and captured the Mankien base in September 1999. (Twic/Tuic Dinka)

    Salva Kiir Mayardit A native of Bahr El Ghazal, assigned chief of staff of the SPLA in late 1999. He was commander of Bahr El Ghazal in 1999 when he strongly backed the Dinka-Nuer Peace and Reconciliation Conference at Wunlit. (Rek Dinka)

    Joseph Lagu Yanga: Founder and leader of the Sudanese rebel group Anya Nya. Sudanese Ambassador to the UN from 1990 to 1992. Joseph Lagu was born in the village of Momokwe, in the north of Madiland, in southern Sudan. He is from the Madi ethnic group. He attended military college in Omdurman and was commissioned into the Sudanese Army in 1960 (Madi) http://africanhistory.about.com/od/...

    Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon Rebel leader with the SPLA from 1984 until the 1991 split, which he helped lead. As SPLA Zonal Commander of Western Upper Nile, entered into agreement with Baggara chiefs in 1986. Led breakaway faction from SPLM/A in 1991, forming a separate southern rebel movement initially known as the SPLA-Nasir (from 1993 the SPLA-United, and from 1994-97 the SSIM/A). Despite espousing independence for the south, his faction received covert support from the government as it fought for years (1991-99) against the SPLA, resorting to increasingly bloody and ethnically motivated attacks against civilians. His SSIA rebel forces claimed all the rural land of Western Upper Nile/Unity State, except the few garrison towns and the Bul Nuer area where Paulino Matiep and Anyanya II prevailed. Signed 1996 Political Charter and 1997 Khartoum Peace Agreement with government, which in 1997 appointed him president of the Southern States Coordinating Council (SSCC) and assistant to President of Sudan Omar el Bashir. Also formed and became head of the political party United Democratic Salvation Front (UDSF) and commander-in-chief of the military arm created under the Khartoum Peace Agreement, the South Sudan Defense Force (SSDF), comprising most of the ex-rebels who had signed that agreement. His failure to stem the government’s forced displacement of civilians from Western Upper Nile/Unity State ended up turning the Nuer against his leadership and eventually led to his belated resignation from government and attempt to recreate his army in the south in 2000 as the Sudan People’s Democratic Forces (2000-02). In January 2002 signed an agreement with Dr. John Garang to merge the SPDF and the SPLA, receiving a leadership position in the SPLA. (Dok Nuer)

    Benjamin Majak In the late 1990s, head of the relief arm of the SPLA, the SRRA, based in his Dinka area of Ruweng County, Western Upper Nile, and SPLA commander in that area. With the Khartoum government since 2000. (Panaru/Ruweng Dinka)

    Paulino Matiep Nhial Bul Nuer ally of the Sudan government. He was in Anyanya but was not incorporated into the Sudan army after the 1972 peace agreement. He became a rebel again in 1975 in Bilpam, went to Ethiopia, and returned to Western Upper Nile in 1985-86 as Anyanya II. He never joined the SPLA, in part because of its 1983 attacks on Anyanya II. He remained in Anyanya II, armed and supported by the government. With then army officer Omar El Bashir (who led the 1989 coup and became Sudan’s president), he successfully recaptured Mayom garrison in Western Upper Nile in early 1989 from the SPLA. He joined Machar’s breakaway faction in 1991. His forces were incorporated into the SSDF forces after the 1997 Khartoum Peace Agreement, but he fought the SSDF forces for control of the governorship of Unity State in September 1997, and lost. In March 1998 his South Sudan Unity Movement/Army (SSUM/A) was recognized by the government, which continued to directly provide him with arms and ammunition. He was named a major general in Sudan’s army in or before 1998. In 1998-present, he fought on behalf of the government, forcibly displacing civilians from Block 5A. For a longer period he helped the government conduct displacements from Blocks 1, 2, and 4. In 2003 he was again engaged in fighting against Nuer pro-government rivals for control of the governorship of Unity State, and lost. (Bul Nuer)

    Peter Paar Jiek, SPDF commander of Western Upper Nile in 2000-01. Formerly SSDF commander under Cmdr. Tito Biel in the fighting in 1998-99 in Western Upper Nile/Unity State. He was with Machar’s forces since the split from the SPLA in 1991. He coordinated anti-government attacks with Gatdet’s forces until June 2000, when he and Gatdet began to fight each other. He and Gatdet settled the "war of the Peters" in late 2000, and with Riek Machar he rejoined the SPLA in 2001. (Dok Nuer)

    Main Rebel and Militia Forces in South Sudan Named in this Report

    Anyanya: guerrilla army of southern separatists, 1955-72.
    Anyanya II: guerrilla army of southern separatists, 1975-91.
    Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A): dominant rebel army in Sudan, 1983-present, composed of southerners and other marginalized peoples such as the Nuba, headed by Col. John Garang de Mabior (Dinka). Program: united, secular Sudan. Headquartered in Rumbek, Bahr El Ghazal, southern Sudan.
    South Sudan Liberation Movement (SSLM): a pro-independence southern political movement based in Akobo, Eastern Upper Nile, headed and formed by Michael Wal Duany in late 1999; it signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement with the Sudanese government in 2002

    Rebel forces headed (directly or indirectly) by Cmdr. Riek Machar, 1991-2002:

    SPLM/A-Nasir faction: 1991-93, breakaway SPLA faction headed by SPLA Cmdrs. Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon (Dok Nuer), Gordon Kong Chuol (Eastern Jikany Nuer), and Lam Akol (Shilluk); although its program called for an independent south, it received government aid. Headquartered in Nasir until 1995 and thereafter in Waat and Ayod, Upper Nile.
    SPLM/A-United: 1993-94: the above faction (mostly Nuer) joined by forces from other ethnic groups in southern Sudan, headed by Cmdr. Riek Machar, based in Nasir. Later this name was used by Lam Akol for his mostly Shilluk faction (see below).
    South Sudan Independence Movement/Army (SSIM/A): 1994-97: the above faction, reformed and renamed after the Nuer reconciliation meeting at Akobo in 1994, based variously in Waat and Ayod, Upper Nile.
    South Sudan Defense Forces (SSDF): 1997-2000, the army formed under the Khartoum Peace Agreement from ex-rebel forces including SSIM/A, based in Khartoum, Juba, and Malakal, and aligned with the political party United Democratic Salvation Front (UDSF). Both were headed by Cmdr. Riek Machar until January 2000, when he left the government. On April 27, 2001 all southern forces allied with the government were unified under this name, SSDF, including the progovernment militia forces listed below.
    Sudan People’s Defense Forces/Democratic Front (SPDF): January 2000-January 2002 or when the merger with the SPLM/A was complete; the rebel group formed from most SSDF forces, based in Upper Nile.

    Some pro-government militia forces (later known as "armed groups"):
    South Sudan Unity Movement/Army (SSUM/A): formed in early 1998 by Maj Gen. Paulino Matiep of the Sudan army, incorporating his formerly Anyanya II and SSDF Bul Nuer forces, supported by the Sudan government, based in Mayom, Western Upper Nile. (Bul Nuer)
    Cmdr. Gabriel Tanginya, pro-government Nuer militia based in Fangak, later Poum, Central Upper Nile. (Lak Nuer)
    Cmdr. Gordon Kong Chuol, pro-government Nuer militia based in Nasir, Eastern Upper Nile. (eastern Jikany Nuer)
    Cmdr. Simon Gatwich Dual, pro-government Nuer militia based in Waat, Central Upper Nile. (Lou Nuer)
    SPLM/A-United: Cmdr. Lam Akol’s Shilluk forces formed in 1994, which signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement in 1997. Lam Akol claimed the name after the Riek Machar forces in 1994 took the name South Sudan Independence Movement/Army (SSIM/A). Lam Akol had been part of the original SPLM/A-United. Based in Tonga, the Shilluk capital, in Upper Nile of southern Sudan.
    For further details, consult the Glossary, Lists of Key Individuals, and the text. There are several other southern ethnic militias armed by the government, including the Murle, the Mandari, the Toposa, the Didinga, and the Fertit and other ethnic groups not named here.
    Most southerners’ names include their "proper" name first, their father’s name second, and their grandfather’s name last. For example, to refer to Cmdr. Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon as "Machar" is to refer to that commander’s father. Therefore the first and second names are used in this report.

    Nuer pro-government militia leaders:

    Simon Gatwich Dual Pro-government Nuer militia leader based in Akobo, Upper Nile. With the SPLA, he followed Machar in 1991, becoming an SSDF commander in 1997. In 1999 he began receiving direct government funding. He followed Riek Machar out of the government in 2000 and Riek Machar named him governor of Leich State (Western Upper Nile/Unity State). He went with Riek Machar into the SPLA in 2002 but may have remained in some relationship with the Sudanese government and militias. (Lou Nuer)
    Gordon Kong Chuol Pro-government Nuer militia leader based in Eastern Upper Nile. An Anyanya veteran and founder of the SPLM/A, he joined the separatist Anyanya II and fought against the SPLA from 1983-88, when he led the reconciliation of most Anyanya II with the SPLA. With Riek Machar and Lam Akol, he led the breakaway faction that split from the SPLA in 1991. The faction received military assistance from the government and in 1997 signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement with the government. He was made an SSDF (pro-government) commander in 1997 under Riek Machar, and he began to accept direct supplies from the government in 1998. From that time a government militia leader operating out of Nasir with his local Jikany Nuer troops. (Eastern Jikany Nuer).
    Gabriel Tanginya (nom de guerre) Commander of government Nuer militia based in Fangak then Pom, Upper Nile, he was associated with Cmdr. Paulino Matiep in the early Anyanya II and with him joined Cmdr. Riek Machar’s breakaway rebel forces in 1991. He became a government militia leader by accepting direct government backing in 1998-99. In early 2000 he hijacked a U.N. plane in protest of the U.N.’s alleged transport of commanders to Riek Machar’s then location in Koch, Western Upper Nile. (Lak Nuer)"

    Credited Sources:

    http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/count...

    Search term: UNHCR | Refworld | Sudan, Oil, and Human Rights

    http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid...

    REFWORLD: The leader in refugee decision support

    UNHCR: The UN Refugee Agency

    “A bend in the road is not the end of the road... unless you fail to make the turn.” Author Unknown

    Finally, South Sudanese I know you have wisodom people among you.

    You will be judge about who is rights?

    Thank you all.

    repondre message

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