Home | Comment & Analysis    Thursday 19 November 2009

Khartoum-based government’s interest in cheating


By Zechariah Manyok Biar

November 18, 2009 — Many South Sudanese are frustrated by Khartoum-based government’s interest in cheating. But North Sudan politicians do not seem to realize it. This is the reason why the Nation Congress Party’s (NCP) reactions to South Sudan President General Kiir’s advice to Southerners to vote for secession in order to avoid being treated as second-class citizens in their own land do not surprise me.

Khartoum-based government may still be thinking that its interest in the cheating of marginalized people in both North and South Sudan goes undetected like it was in the 1950s to 1970s. The cheating of Southerners by Khartoum-based government started in 1947 in what is now known as Cairo agreement, in which Northern politicians excluded Southerners in the conference, calling them primitive and uneducated people who would just be informed about political decisions.

Even though Southerners formed their political parties by 1947 after their disappointment in Cairo agreement, their voices were silenced by Northern politicians. That Northerners’ attitude toward Southerners resulted in Anya-nya 1 war.

When Northerners realized that Anya-nya 1 was going to be a challenge to them when Israel started supporting the Anya-nya 1 rebels, Northern politicians used Abel Alier as a means of luring the rebels back to Sudan. Both Abel Alier and rebel leaders like Joseph Lagu were deceived that Southerners were going to be given the right for self-determination. Even though that self-determination would have resulted in Southerners’ choice of unity over secession, President Nimeiri thought that it was not a good idea to give Southerners that kind of respect to let them have a say in the affairs of the nation. Nimeiri nullified Addis Ababa agreement, saying that it was neither a Bible nor a Quran that cannot be broken.

Having been dissatisfied by the way that things were run in Sudan, Southerners rebelled against the government again in 1983. Northern politicians did all kinds of tricks, including buying of Southerners, to destroy the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A), but failed.

When the war on terror became a reality in Washington, Khartoum accepted peace between the North and the South in order to buy time and cheat Southerners again when the time is right.

Cheating started immediately after the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). Although the sharing of government would mean the sharing of important ministries between the North and the South, Khartoum sat down and resolved that they would not allow SPLM and Southerners take any ministry that would be a threat to their cheating. So Northerners took the ministry of finance, the ministry of energy, the ministry of legal affairs (in case they are law-suited by Southerners), and the ministry of defense. You remember that there is oil sharing provision in CPA, and the oil is in South Sudan. Now Juba-based government does not even know what amount of money the oil generates each week. So 50% that South Sudanese get is artificial.

Northern politicians thought the cheating that they are doing to Southerners in oil’s money was not enough. So they stood against SPLM’s idea that Sudanese outside Sudan should be counted during last year’s census. SPLM gave in and never counted millions of South Sudanese living outside Sudan, shrinking the number of South Sudan’ population. NCP also reported that Southerners living in the North were 500,000. NCP was not ashamed to show its intention by saying that Northern Sudan will now deduct oil’s money that was “wrongly” given to South Sudan since 2005 because of the wrong estimation of the population in the South.

However, for the sake of the upcoming referendum, Northerners never hesitated to say that Southerners living in the North were in fact more than one million. This strategy is meant to rig the referendum results in 2011.

In a related development, NCP refused Abyei Boundary Commission’s report because it awarded Heglig oil field to Abyei. When The Hague Court ruled that Heglig was not part of Abyei, NCP blessed the ruling without hesitation, hoping that they will still rig the results of Abyei’s referendum in 2011. Now Northern politicians are saying that Missiriya will vote in Abyei even if they are not part of Abyei. That is a calculated cheating.

For the upcoming elections and referendum, Northern politicians sat down and calculated how they would rig the results. So they resolved that Sudanese outside Sudan, regardless of whether they were counted during the census or not, would vote for both elections and referendum. But the countries that Sudanese are free to register include Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Qatar, Sultanate of Oman, Bahrain, the UK, Belgium (for all Western Europe) and Washington, New York, and Los Angles for the USA.

This last cheating intention of NCP makes you laugh because it lacks any element of sophistication at all. Maybe Northerners think that Southerners are little kids that do not have the ability to distinguish falsehood from the truth of the situation. The above strategies beg questions at the surface level. You do not have to be a deep thinker to detect NCP’s ill-intentions here.

The question that comes to mind when you see the above mentioned countries is how the Electoral Commission came to such a decision that the aforementioned countries are the ones that Southerners are eligible to vote. The Chairman of Electoral Commission, Abel Alier, the one that Khartoum used to lure Anya-nya 1 rebels into Khartoum in 1972 has now hinted that the final decisions about elections are made by the presidency.

How did the presidency come to the above conclusion, then? One theory is that Sudanese living in places like Kenya, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Ethiopia do not have Sudan national identity cards.

That sounds good. But the question is: Where did South Sudanese living in Washington, New York, and Los Angles get Sudanese identity cards and they were part of the people living in the countries rejected? Where is the provision in the policy for people like me, who live in Texas, but have all the needed Sudanese documents including Sudanese passport that was renewed in Sudanese embassy in Washington D.C. in November last year? I came to the US as an international student with the Sudanese passport and I will use the same passport in May next year to go back to Sudan after my studies, but I cannot register now because Texas is not among the approved list of states that Sudanese are eligible to register in the USA. Why would refugees who escaped the just-ended war in Sudan be barred from registering in the name of national identity cards?

Of course, the Khartoum-based government is not foolish to understand that their choice of states and countries does not make sense. They know how ridiculous what they are saying is, but they think that they will get away with this type of dry cheating because they regard Southerners as kids who lack deep understanding of these kinds of issues.

The choice behind the countries, including states of Washington, New York, and Los Angles in the USA, is a calculated intention for cheating. Let me give the example about the states chosen here in the USA. Washington, New York, and Los Angles are the most diverse states here in the USA. So Northern Sudanese feel at home in these states than they do in other states. Southern Sudanese, on the other hand, do not go to these states because their standard of living is beyond the minimum wage.

Therefore, according to Khartoum-based government strategic intention for cheating, they have calculated that Northern Sudanese would outnumber Southerners living in these states. Kenya, Uganda, and Ethiopia do not qualify because they are full of Southern Sudanese and very few Northerners. The same trick applies to Canada, Australia, and more than 40 states in the United States. NCP agreed to add some countries when their cheating was detected. But that has little effect in mending the mistrust their first decision has created between Northerners and Southerners.

All in all, Khartoum-based government’s unceasing intention for cheating is a great frustration to Southerners, including General Kiir. That is one of the reasons why General Kiir advised Southerners to vote for secession in 2011. Is President Kiir wrong?

My next, and probably the last of these articles, will examine the reasons behind the feeling of Southerners that they are being treated as second-class citizens in their own land.

Zechariah Manyok Biar is a graduate student at Abilene Christian University, Texas, USA. He is pursuing a Master of Arts in Christian Ministry and a Master of Science in Social Work, specializing in Administration and Planning. For comments, contact him at email: manyok34@gmail.com

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  • 19 November 2009 06:12, by Mr Famous Big_Logic_Boy

    Khartoum Khartoum Khartoum Khartoum Khartoum but you have forgotten the immoral attitude of dinkas in South. When will you people come to realised the real virus in South Sudan? The arabs government still cheats on your poor dinkas government don’t exclude this point.

    repondre message

    • 19 November 2009 06:32, by Trueman

      Logic Boy,

      You will fart and smell it by yourself. Waste of time to respond to a careless orphan.

      repondre message

    • 19 November 2009 07:18, by johnmaker

      Logic gay,

      I came to believed very much that you are an evil object not even monkey.The article writen by Zacharia Manyok biar got nothing to do with Dinka.Logicgay would you tell us were you live so that we should know.I thought you are in Juba or in khartoum.Say like Manyok said where he live now.Be a man.

      repondre message

      • 19 November 2009 10:52, by Michael Madit Magot

        Brother Manyok Biar,

        That is a wonderful article.
        Well researched and cleverly articulated.
        You are more knowledgeable in Sudan politics than even those commanders or ministers warming up the government seats in Juba.

        The skilful way you put your points across indicate that you have huge edge in our country issues.

        I and many others are silence readers of your beautiful articles.
        However, what compel me to write this piece of message is your last remark in the article that "perhap this could be your last article of your articles".

        I would like to urge you to continue with spirit in feeding our community with those wise and intellectual articles.
        Believe it or not you and other writers like Luk Kuth Dak are contributing meaningful and educative articles to our youth.

        Some are scared away from expressing their appreciation and satisfaction with your sage articles by the actions of few like Logic Boy who turn comments into insults,funs or jokes.

        Still you should persevere and go on with the golden mission of enlightening us as the future generation.

        Please allocate your time in your daily activities but don’t forget to utilise a portion of your time into constructing articles which feed us alot with ideas.

        God Bless you and keep you well to serve us with your bank(brain).

        repondre message

        • 19 November 2009 17:11, by Manyok

          Brother Michael Madit Magot,

          I always enjoy your mature and thoughtful advice. I am not quitting writing. What I mean by "my last article" is the last article in the series that I had devoted to answering questions raised by NCP’s reactions to President Kiir’s advice to South Sudanese to vote for secession in 2011 in order to avoid being treated like second class citizens. I cannot quit writing at this critical political time in the history of our country.

          God bless you there in Australia, brother.

          Zechariah Manyok Biar

          repondre message

  • 19 November 2009 12:45, by Pwad Achob

    Dear brothers,

    We can write good & articulate articles but what we want in the south today is a good example that we are able to rule ourselves by rule of Law and in democratic system. We have to prove to others that we have good governance and respect to rule of law.

    Now, if we want to critisize others for wrongdoing unto us
    , we must be free of deeds that we label against others. Look at what is happening in the south today. Are we free of what arabs are doing to us? We are even more worse because we are doing it to ourselves.A brother against a brother and believe me, this is more painful than what an enemy(an arab) does.

    I think we are losing a united south if we do not change our behaviour and attitudes towards ourselves.

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    • 19 November 2009 14:08, by mohammed ali

      I am really buzzeled! You always think that you could be cheated!and that you could be considered AS 2ND CLASS HUMAN BEING! Why ? This paranoia!

      This state of suspicion is not towards us the jalabba , but it is among southern tribes.Didn’t some people accused Machar and subsequentely the Neuer, of trying to conspire and cheat the southerners when he signed the agreement of the referendum law with NCP.

      This a morbid condition, this paranoia.

      Moreover, Khartoum is not one person and not one identity!We do not want to cheat you and we will not cheat you.We can not live together with this contiuous state of suspecious, you are very suspecious about any northerner!

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  • 19 November 2009 13:56, by Gatwech

    Zechariah Manyok Biar,

    This is a good relevant article. But brother, don’t always feel outwitted by northerners. If gaining something in politics is called cheating as you think, then the South has cheated the north in many things. Even though Addis Ababa agreement of 1972 wasn NOT signed based on self-determination through referendum, the formation of High Executive Council for the South was a recognition of the South being an entity.

    Also the signing of self-determination for the first time in 1997 Khartoum Peace Agreement could be called a cheating by the South on the North. The CPA also confirmed the self-determination, etc and we have maintained the ten states as separate autonomous governments under the Southern umbrella. Whe will we feel that we can also cheat the north to gain our interest like they sometimes do to gain their interest. Don’t look southerners down always. We have almost achieved our final destiny. We are not cheated. In the referendum law only southerners in the countries bordering Sudan and other western countries are to be registered. It is different from the elections of Abel Alier, a southerner who cheats southerners.

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  • 19 November 2009 14:06, by Akuma

    Dear Manyok;

    Your article is hundred percent right even though some Sudanese in south Sudan take as theirs personally, the fact should be told, government of sudan believed that when they steal our oil in Unity state and other areas of oil, then they consider themselves as native of country.

    During Any-any one war, some leaders were bribe including Joseph Lago who was among peace delegation of any-any 1. and tehn they Neimri approach him to let him married arabs girl who give birth Christian-muslims children who are problems in the South.

    Government of southern sudan doesn’t believed what diaspora are saying, because for them, they receive their daily service bribely from the northern because Northern Sudan used oil’s money to support micro-militias in south in order to weakening the southern Sudan government and our government so-called GOSS paid deaf ears to see into that problem in the southern sudan.

    However, we can be prepare for election but none of southern may not won presidential seats of sudan unless government is converted to christainity because of sharia law which was introduced by Gen. Neimri in Sudan.

    Watch out, let prepare for referendum than election in Sudan.

    Dr.Akuma, Chicago USA

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  • 19 November 2009 14:24, by Gatwech

    Khent and Likes,

    I know you are ashamed to read the Famous Rumbek Meeting of 2004 that exposed John Garang as incompetent and a traitor of the South. That was a vote of no confidence on him.

    You can run, Khent but you cannot hide. A blind man running can fall into a bottomless pit. A deaf who doesn’t hear can fall into a trap!

    Read this beautiful warning of Salva Kiir to John Garang in Rumbek, 2004. Read carefully the marked words:

    "Those who are misleading you (Garang) and giving you false security information about others will ’suffer’ with you together or ’leave’ with you. The government, which is going to be led by you must include all. Without unity, the agreement will be a source of our disunity. We are ’not’ organized in all aspects, and as such will be exploited by other political parties that are more organized. The ’lack’ in our structures and political guidance will lead us to a ’very serious’ political defeat."

    Khent if you have the guts read again and again that warning above by Salva Kiir. Did Garang listen to the warning? I also warn you the disciples of the dark angel to listen and not run blindly until you fall into the bottomless pit.

    repondre message

    • 19 November 2009 21:55, by DOOR


      Khent must be sick mentally as shown by how he debate.
      Haven’t you notice that yet?
      He claim to be a Dinka but he lack the capabilities of a Dinka or maybe his intellectual capability is impaired by the mental illness.
      Can’t you realise why he do not satisfactorily answer your questions?
      It is because of his ill-health which give you advantage of singling him out.
      Try other tap Dinkas.

      Please Leave the Hero Dr Garang alone to rest in peace.
      He brought to you a peace in a golden plate and your duty is to just serve and defend it during the referendum.
      He was not God as you expect him to be and thus he must have committed some mistakes as he is not perfect.

      The question is " does Garang’s mistakes outnumber the unforgivable mistakes committed by Dr Riek?"
      We applaud them and consider both of them as heroes for overcoming their differences and unite as onebody and blood to enable us achieve our CPA.

      Dr Garang has gone after accomplishing his duty and the remaining part will be finished by Dr Riek.

      "Please abstain from drawing us back to history which will not serve us well".
      "That is already recorded as a history and you can’t do anything to reverse it".

      repondre message

      • 20 November 2009 02:54, by Moses Kur Akech

        No human being is perfect as some tribalist junkies fail to comprehend that their tribal men and women can make mistakes simply because they are humans and their mistakes and right deeds teach them and the rest to change direction.

        No one is saint but we as humans judge people on their actions and pick up leaders who make more good to public.Tolerance, self-sacrifice, courage and commitment to your people bring unity when accompanied by respect to rule of law. If you have the ability to diagnose your own, friend and tribal men and women wrong than you do have a potential to convince critical thnikers that you do venture beyond tibalist realm.

        repondre message

      • 20 November 2009 16:16, by pow james raeth


        you are not well arranged mentally, who among our leaders did not killed people ranging from Garang to the bottom.

        repondre message

    • 22 November 2009 13:12, by Khent

      Childish Gatwech:

      Your tortured attempts to misconstrue and even reverse the dynamics of Riek’s collaboration with the enemy is perhaps the most laughable exercise in self delusion.

      Dr. John Garang (unlike Riek) is NOT a traitor!

      No one believes this or thinks this other than you.

      Though I doubt that you actually believe it, because, well.... it’s just dumb. Full props to you for your imaginative piece of fluff rhetoric.

      The main problem Riek had in establising his political credibility was his collaboration with the government. Riek’s reliance on the government for military hardware at crucial times throughout 1993-4 had a subsequent obvious effect on the course of inter-factional fighting.

      This accelerated disillusionment and disintegration as more and more of the rank-and-file of the movement began to realize the extent of Riek’s dependence on government support.

      Riek’s lasting legacy is the fomenting of civil war among the Nuer, and handing the oil-fields over to the government.

      Riek’s commanders from both the Jikany and Lou Nuer approached the government in Malakal seeking arms ostensibly with which to fight Dr. John Garang’s forces. These were given freely.

      Throughout the early part of 1994 there were clashes between the Lou of Waat and the Jikany of Nasir, leading to the destruction of Ulang and Nasir itself and the death of some 1200 people.

      Riek was so incompetent that he concoted a fake military assault on Malakal, with the employed services of a "Nuer prophet" to raise this force.

      Gatkek Wutnyang had been led to believe that the force was intended to take Malakal. Gatkek Wutnyang subsequently launched the unsuccesful assault on the town, little knowing that the Nasir commanders had NEVER seriously meant to attack it.

      When this fact was revealed, Riek’s commanders then relapsed into an embarrassed silence.

      Oil exploitation had been made possible by clearing the oil-fields of their civilian population through the activities of the Sudanese armed forces and Baqqara militias from southern Southern Kordofan, and then by the securing of areas through the alliance with the Nuer break-away factions.

      Once installed, the Sudanese military used the oil company roads and airfields to attack civilian settlements within a widening security radius.

      Now, if you can’t understand how Riek’s collaboration make him a TRAITOR, there is possibly a problem of basic intelligence which I cannot help you with.

      When are you going to characterize Riek’s collaboration with the enemy as an act of betrayal? When is that going to happen?

      You don’t like the truth and prefer to make up reasons for believing in nonsense, so you continuously pretend not to understand a word I say.

      Riek was an incompetant hypocrite, an un-convincing liar, a capricious figure- prone to collaborating with the enemy, unscrupolous and a TRAITOR.

      He laughably dismissed Dr. Lam Akol from their pseudo ’movement’ for get this, collaborating with the government. Reacting against his dismissal, Dr. Akol issued and circulated a document in which he demonstrated that he was not alone in cooperation with the enemy.

      In the document, Dr. Akol was very euphemistic when he remarked: "Who could be more royal in the king’s court than the King himself!". A clear reference to the fact that Riek, as the chairman of Nasir was fully aware of their ’movement’s collaboration with the government.

      There was NO crime too great for Nasir to commit, no deception too base for them to practice, no disguise too difficult for them to assume. Enjoy the fruits of our labour, the peace of our negotiations, and be grateful!

      You’re just a desperate defeated dunce, playing dumb because you have no other recourse.

      There’s no longer any burden of proof on you.

      Do you know why?

      Because your case is dismissed.

      Without Dr. John Garang’s forgiveness, Riek would be irrelevant within the political environment. Don’t’ be bitter. Be thankful!

      repondre message

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