Home | News    Monday 29 August 2011

South Sudan’s Machar confirms Bor ‘apology’, calls for wider reconciliation

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August 28, 2011 (JUBA) – South Sudan’s Vice President, Riek Machar, has confirmed that he apologized earlier this month for killings that took place nearly two decades ago, while he led a splinter group from southern rebels fighting Khartoum.

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John Garang (left) the late SPLM leader reconciles with Riek Machar (Right) in 2002. (New Sudan Foundation)

Machar reportedly made the apology on August 9 to the Dinka Bor community over what became known as the ’Bor massacre’ in 1992.

At a church service on Sunday in South Sudan’s capital, Machar confirmed that he had made the apology, calling upon all the communities in the newborn nation to reconcile and live in peace and harmony.

Nine years into Sudan’s North-South civil war Machar led a breakaway faction of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) in an attempt to wrestle power away from its chairman John Garang.

Machar and other senior members of the SPLM, including Lam Akol objected to Garang’s style of running the rebel movement and wanted a change in the SPLM’s strategy.

Machar’s 1991 Nasir Declaration called for the right of self-determination for the Southerners to be the SPLM’s main objective.

In 2005, after Machar had rejoined the SPLM, a peace deal was signed with Khartoum according South Sudan the right to secede through a referendum, an option overwhelmingly accepted earlier this year.

Up until his death in July 2005, days after becoming Sudan’s First Vice President and the President of the autonomous region of South Sudan, Garang remained publicly committed to a vision of a democratic, pluralistic, federal, secular and united "New Sudan".

Garang’s predecessor Salva Kiir appointed Machar as Vice President of South Sudan in August 2005, a position he has retained ever since.

In 1991, such a scenario seemed improbable at best when Machar’s attempt at a bloodless coup failed to garner the necessary support to dethrone Garang as the head of the rebel movement.

Despite appealing to all members of the SPLM, Machar only managed to win the support of a handful of commanders, the majority of whom hailed from his own Nuer tribe, with some notable exceptions.

In 1992 a combined force of armed Nuer civilians and soldiers of Machar’s Nasir faction attacked Garang’s hometown of Bor in Jonglei state. The offensive against mainly defenseless members of Garang’s Dinka tribe resulted in the death or maiming of hundreds if not thousands of people and the displacement of tens of thousands more.

A large area from Duk Padiet, far in the north of the area through to Cuei-keer was attacked and cattle stolen. The ferocity and alleged tribal element of the attack created a fault-line in South Sudan politics between the Dinka and Nuer that has yet to be fully bridged.

Ever since the ’Bor massacre’, Machar has been a controversial figure in South Sudan. Garang at the time described him as a traitor and blamed him for the SPLM’s failure to take Juba from the government, as forces had to be diverted to fight the Nasir faction.

Machar has since denied that he condoned the way his forces and their associates acted in the infamous incident but for even after he rejoined the SPLM in 2002, he has stopped short of apologising.

News about Machar’s apology to the Dinka Bor community surfaced earlier this month but was unconfirmed until today. The apology took place at the residence of Rebecca Nyandeng de Mabior, the widow of the late leader John Garang, in the presence of the Dinka Bor’s political leaders and elders.

Machar chose a church service on Sunday 28 August, 20 years to the day since ’the split in the SPLM was announced over radio across South Sudan from the far east corner of Jonglei state in 1991, to publicly confirm he made the apology.

Addressing the Nuer congregation of the Presbyterian Church in Juba, Machar said that it was a right thing to do. He said that he had made the apology after being invited to a gathering of the Dinka Bor community in memory of the SPLM’s founder John Garang.

Opinion among the Nuer community appears split over the apology.

Some said the move was a courageous effort towards reconciliation, while others criticised the Vice President, saying the apology was premature and should have been reciprocated on the side of the Dinka Bor community for other incidents during the civil war.

There has even been unfounded speculation that the apology might be used as evidence of confessing a crime and that he may be brought before an international tribunal.

Machar said that when he gave the apology he took the opportunity to explain to the Dinka Bor community the differences in the movement that necessitated the split; his call for the right of self-determination of the people of South Sudan; the need to democratise the movement; respect for human rights – issues he said were not articulated before 1991.

As part of his 2002 reconciliation with Garang, the right of self-determination for the people of South Sudan was adopted and became a crucial part of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), which in July resulted in South Sudan’s independence.

The Vice President also said he had told the Dinka Bor community at the democratisation of the SPLM and respect for human rights remain a challenge that should be addressed. He said there was a need to change from the mentality of the past during which people were arrested, tortured, extra judicially killed at will and their property confiscated.

Machar said he acknowledged that many groups including his own Nuer community suffered in the hands of other South Sudanese during the 22 year liberation that begun in 1983 . He said that if the Dinka Bor community has not yet forgiven the Nuer and his forces then it was right to apologise to them seek reconciliation so that all communities in the new nation move forward together in peace and harmony.

“I told the Dinka Bor community that I was responsible for both the good things and the bad things that came as a result of the Nasir Declaration, because I was its leader and that people should no longer hold grudges against others such as Lam Akol because of the split,” Machar further explained.

“I used the English word ‘apology’ to them,” he further clarified.

Machar added that any concerns about the legal implications of his apology are baseless, saying he understood what he was doing.

On the formation of independent South Sudan’s first cabinet, Machar said he had already received complaints from communities, including his own community of Unity state that they have not received any federal ministerial position in the new cabinet.

However, Machar said the President and South Sudan’s ten states governors, in accordance with the transitional constitution signed into law on 9 July, have the constitutional right to appoint anyone to their cabinets, even if such people come from the same constituency.

The Vice President appealed to the Nuer community to accept his apology and call for reconciliation and continue to play a leading role in bringing peace and unity through forgiveness and reconciliation with the various communities in South Sudan.

Machar said the biggest challenge that faces the new nation after attaining its independence is how to keep its people together in peace and unity. Earlier this month over 600 members of the Nuer community in Jonglei state were killed in a revenge attack by the neighboring Murle ethnic group.

As well as cattle raiding and banditry South Sudan also has to deal with numerous armed rebellions, many of which started after contentious elections in April last year.

(ST)

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  • 29 August 2011 07:58, by allan

    OK is lets just forget what happen and lets move on dealling wit nuer people is likes looking after goats and sheep mindless

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    • 29 August 2011 08:43, by Cibaipiath Junub Sudan

      Dr. Riek Apology should extend to other Regions that were affected by Nasir Declaration (Warrap and Lakes States). Why should Riek confirmed his apology to Bor Community as if Massacre took place in Bor alone? If Riek wants a change of mind then he should extend his apology to all regions. Riek should also advise his Nuer counterpart to do similar apology so that they all gain political vaccum. Nuer need to see that all Citizens are equal and there is need to balance politics and love for everybody. This is a right time for reconciliation and start a future political move to win support from every corner of the Country.

      Self-determination is just a last price of an item and that is why Abyei is left to the North. If we were really fighting for the Liberation of the whole Sudan, South Sudan could have restored back Abyei to the South and the Boundaries could have been demarcated by us without any difficulties. Because of that weakeness, we accept Self-Determination that amputated us (Abyei remain in the North). Why should we be proud when we are still struggling for the remaining part of our Country? Please we still have more steps to go and finally be proud of ourselves.

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  • 29 August 2011 08:37, by Kolong oo!

    Vice Machar should resign instead of apology because people like him are not leaders to new nation, death on nyigateen.

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    • 29 August 2011 08:59, by Chuut

      Riaak Machar,

      We the Dinka Bor did indeed also uprooted some families within Nuer specially the Gawaar, Jikany and Lou Nuer.
      If you revisit them Now you will see some families have been destroyed and darkened without a single survivor.
      We are happy and gload in your apology which we have infact avenge properly.
      It is only a Dinka Bor who had not gone to that revenge after we departed Juba frontline who may still be doubting and angry.
      Ask the Nuer Lou and Gaajak, they would point to us with their tongues but not their fingers.

      Unfortunately you didn’t know how Nuer was also affected after that D-Day revenge that we undertook because your clan was far in Unity state and have not witnessed our anger.
      The fools you used like Lou Nuer will take us to their graves in their lips on how we fericously devoured them in that magnificient revenge.

      I don’t shed tears because i avenged but the door of peace is open.

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  • 29 August 2011 08:47, by Nhomlawda

    Riek Machar confirmation of his apology to Dinka Bor is necessary for those Nuer who only think hostility is the way forward between them and the Dinka Community to rethink.

    The fault-line created between Dinka and Nuer as a result of that useless 1991 Nasir Declaration is unforgettable and will take centuries of good work for Dinka and Nuer brotherhood to be restored.

    Unfortunately majority of Nuer are not working toward amending their damaged relations with Dinka, instead they keep adding salt to the already souring wounds.

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  • 29 August 2011 08:48, by Grader

    The challenge now is for others to do the same.

    I’m not his fan but I have to say he’s right

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  • 29 August 2011 08:57, by Abraham Ayom

    This is an evidence of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity committed by Dr. Riek Machar during Nassir declaration. Now he is accepted his sin committed and appologized to the people. That is great if you are confident. I forgive you as an individual for what you have done. May God bless you.

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    • 29 August 2011 10:02, by goyuom

      this is useless topic to be discuss for almost a month, because if it is a matter of appology Rebecca Nyadeng will appologize on behave of John Garang by beating dead person (corps) in Bilpham during those big mess before Dinka Bor and Nuer forgive themselves
      please stop such stupid talk especially to dinka Bor
      By goyuom

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      • 29 August 2011 10:14, by onlysonmabi

        Goyuom be big in mind what have this man did Dr Garang will see you with your bad thing you are doing to people.

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    • 29 August 2011 10:52, by Ajok Garang

      The New Nations today which now sweet was the one killing the Dinka Bor and now Riek has accepted that he did it ...to me that apology will not be given this time ,it would be better if he could apologise before the independence not today .....the death of thousand Bor children becuase of the intention to make the SPLA collapse is a big crime against humanity and i wish the ICC would have taken that genocide serousely ...why only Bor tribe targetted and yet there are somany tribes today in the South Sudan ?? shame upon this politicians such as Riek Machar ..

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  • 29 August 2011 09:25, by gotutu

    well done Dr Riek
    we people of greater upper nile have been affected by nasir movement
    apology always matters
    we hope the leadership of the new country will come back to greater upper nile through you
    long live upper nile
    long live dr RIEK

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    • 29 August 2011 10:14, by Dinka Dominated SPLA/M

      As a really SPLA/M member for lifes and a son of great Bor Dinka Dhaughter. and an army General. i will Never forgive my brother and my vice president Dr Riek machar for what he did to my belove comrade in nasir during his defection.

      He Mr Dr vice persident will never rest in his lives.He killed the Dinka Bor where my mother cames from and he killed my comrade in the army because they say no to him. i don’t think someone with right mind will accept his late and useless apologies.

      If me and Mr Dr Vice President die today at the same time i will not still going to like him even if God send both of us to heaven i will choose to go to hell in order to aviod being together with Riek Machar teny Dhurgon.

      If almighty Father in heaven know that Riek Machar has committed crimes than i will be able to get rid of him.
      Anybody who is accepting his apology will be held accountable for the same crimes that Riek machar Committed.
      God is great.

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      • 29 August 2011 10:27, by Dinka_D_Generation_X

        @Dinka Dominated SPLA/M,you are right bro

        That is an evidence of genocide war and crimes against humanity. I don’t understand why Dr nyigateen killed civilians of Dinka BOR? If its was forleadership ,disagreed or because of SPLM’s strategies Why he didn’t kill DR GARANG and take over the party. I think the Nuer Community is don’t something call one on one fight ,NUER community never learn and it will never any thing in this new Nation.I will never never forgive Nasir leader for what he done to my people . One day south sudan parliament will be DINKA’s and Greater Equatoria only. GOd Bless people of Dinka BOR and the whole Dinka’s cross seven states in South Sudan

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        • 29 August 2011 11:30, by Mammar Gadhaffi

          I gree with you 100% we have to take him to Hague since there are evidences

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          • 29 August 2011 13:45, by gotutu

            WHY NOT KUOL MANYANG TO BE TAKEN TO HAGUE BECAUSE HE KILLED NUER.

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      • 29 August 2011 10:46, by Land-of-Cush

        Dinka Dominated SPLA/M

        Yesterday you are a Dinka born during struggle left country and grew up in London and to day you’re a SPLA/M general who will not accept Dr Machar’s apology. I think if the food you‘re eating burn you, you shouldn’t wait until it become cold. Also you seem to be the right person in Dinka community don’t you?

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  • 29 August 2011 10:13, by Mammar Gadhaffi

    Dr.Riek apology is accepted and I think only understandable to intelectual but uncivilized communities like Lou nuer will not be aware of this latest dev’t, so this need Dr.Riek to visit this communities in their localities especially Akobo,Uror,Fangak and should explain to them that his did in 1991 was a wrong move and then come for final apology to Bor community. This will change the ideology of Nuer toward Bor.

    I am currently in Central Tripoly, Libya

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    • 29 August 2011 12:15, by Deng Kueth

      Dear Dinka Bor,
      You guys what are your problems?
      Why are playing with the Vice President of the Republic of South Sudan’s name? What are you trying to do? South Sudanese citizens are now looking forwards of what to do in the newly born Nation pertaining Development, yet you Dinka Bor taking people back to all what had happened in 1991? If I could ask you where were you during that time? I don’t see the reason for Dr. Riek Machar to Apologizes to Dinka Bor. The fighting was erupted between Riek and the late, if the late was defeated by Riek and Riek killed his cmmunity that was not Riek problem, you blame the late. If you think by this time you are able to revenge because I can see it’s still paining you so much, you organize yourselves then you go and kill the number of people who were kill by Riek. Go to Lou Nuer and revenge it. If you don’t want to go then stop talking about Riek ’s resignation that thing will not happen.

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  • 29 August 2011 10:33, by Deng Thiak Adut

    Congratulation Benydit;
    I have always trusted to you and that you will sincerely deliver you apology to Dinka Bor. I note that you did not have any criminal intention, or murderous intention. You have now nothing to fear for this apology and I call upon all sincere Dinka Bor and Nuer Community to work on full commitments and implementation of this apology to the development of our nation without reservations.
    Peace and Harmony are paramount consideration when Benydit delivered his apology and I dare to see all of us to work towards peace, good governance of the state.
    On behalf of my community; I accepted your apology without reservations from my heart and no doubts per se and I will fully support you and your leadership chairs.
    Deng Thiak Adut

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  • 29 August 2011 12:50, by monyjang chol

    MAMUAR GADHAFI AKA BLOODY MANIAC FROM BOR.

    IT DOESNT MATTER WETHER THERE IS TWIC WEST OR NOT LIKE THERE IS EASTERN JIKANY IN UPPER NILE AND JIKANY IN UNITY STATE.I NOE TRUTH HURT ALOTS BUT YU DINKA BOR AKA NYAMNYAM WILL NEVER BE FORGIVEN BY DINKA TWIC EAST. YU USE DINKA TWIC EAST AS SHIELDS AGAINST LOU NUER BUT WITHOUT DINKA TWIC EAST LOU NUER WOULD HAVE ENSLAVE YU IN 18TH CENTURY. DINKA TWIC EAST AND DINKA DUK( NYARWENG AND HOL) RESIST NUER MALITIAS AND RIEK MACHAR FORCES FOR TWO MONTH BUT COWARD FROM DINKA BOR RAN TO LAKE STATE ACROSS THE NILE WHILE FEW OF THEM REMAINED BEHIND AND INSULT THE DISPLACE CIVILAIN FRON DINKA DUK AND TWIC. WHEN THE NUER WERE TOO STRONG FOR TWIC EAST AND DUK AFTER TOUGH RESISTENCE WERE PUSHED TO MADING BOR AND THE WHOLE OF BOR COUNTY WAS OVERRAN BY NUER IN SINGLE DAY ALL THE WAY TO MONGALLA BEFORE THEY WHERE SENT BACK BY FEARLESS TIGER COMMANDER BIOR AJANG AND AYUEN JOGAAK FROM DINKA TWIC EAST AND DUK RESPECTIVELY.
    FINALLY DONT FOOL YOURSELF THAT TWIC IS PART OF BOR BECAUSE TWIC ARE HONEST AND BRAVE PEOPLE UNLIKE YU BLOODY COWARD WHO SELL THIER CHILDREN TO MURLE ESPECIALLY THOSE CROOK TEETH THIEVES FRO ANYIDI OR PALEK OR GOK IN PARTICULAR.

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    • 29 August 2011 13:41, by gotutu

      DEAR MONJONG CHOL
      PLEASE YOU WRITE YOU COMMENT LIKE A RESPONSIBLE PERSON
      THESE KIND OF COMMENT WILL TAKE YOU NOWHERE.

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    • 29 August 2011 18:44, by Cadaai ?o?

      “Call it a clan, call it a network, call it a tribe, call it a family: Whatever you call it, whoever you are, you need one.” By Jane Howard
      “The individual has always had to struggle to keep from being overwhelmed by the tribe. If you try it, you will be lonely often, and sometimes frightened. But no price is too high to pay for the privilege of own yourself.” By Friedrich Nietzsche

      “W? ce deer ku na cï w? deer në yicda ?icku, ayukku kuany cök e lö? tue?, kuj? k??kë b? kuanycök.” By J. Thon de Garang

      The Dinka Twic East is one of the Dinka (Jieng) communities located in Jonglei State (formerly well-known as the Upper Nile region before Sudan separated into two nations of North & South Sudan) of the Republic of South Sudan. The genesis of Twic East Community is from Twic East County located between Bor and Duk Counties. Dinka Jieng Tuic East people are pretty known by their common characters like calm, kind, honesty, daring wisdom, suitable compassion, hospitality, unselfish, non-greedy, non-violent people any levels of life aspects, and leadership, intelligent and other elements of their characters.
      “…Contrary to popular conception Dr. John Garang is from Dinka Twic-east, NOT Bor. The Twic Dinka is a separate county from Dinka Bor, and speaks a different dialect, with ...”
      Source: www.Sudantribune.com/
      According to my personal analysis: here are some of the problems we have in South Sudan when it comes to dealing with communities, bumas, lineages, clans, Payams, Counties, regions and tribal naming issues
      (a) In former times, whoever was a leader in South Sudan’s government would use nepotism to name all the communities, clans and tribes through their own lineages’ names. This has become an issue today; because people are starting to acknowledge the mess that has been made by biased people during their time of leadership. So now most of the lineages, communities, clans and tribes are trying to fix this issue of naming. Yet there is still a long way to go for them to reach the truth, because of the extremists who are in contrast maintaining the mindset of the old eras. They are ignoring the facts, and even some people are not abiding by the truth of the matter. These extremists are always trying to support their own related folks that have violated the ethics of the social leadership positions they were holding. Even though they know the facts, still their stubborn hearts of division through nepotism, communalism, clannishness and tribalism do allow them to hold on to the negative and baseless truth. They just want to promote their own communities, clans and tribes names as proud symbols of their domination over any social organized groups, in my studied opinion. These extremists use propaganda as their way to deny the legitimacy of the truth, and they just hide behind their dishonesty.
      (b) Educators in those former days were the ones who put those controversial names on the official documents, even though they were aware that it was the wrong thing for them to do. Still they were possessed by the evils of nepotism, clannishness and tribalism. I would call it a mistake made by most of the South Sudanese scholars; to me, this issue was not the Northerners’ problem or propaganda against the Southerners. Northerners were just documenting what was given to them by our Southern intellectuals who were representing us in Khartoum’s government. Personally, I do not point my finger toward the Northerners for the mess. I do blame our Southerners, who were our intellectuals and leaders at that particular period of time. They dishonestly violated the ethics of their leadership posts and their professional class, which was given to them by the people whom they were representing in government. Furthermore, their misuse of honor and names recognition many years ago is right now becoming a critical problem that needs to be addressed it, so that the controversies of naming of places, regions. Tribes or sub-tribes are not allowed to become a disaster against peace and unity. To me, it is easy to solve it if everybody is really open to the truth. And if they don’t accept the truth, it becomes a complicated issue rooted in stereotyping and propaganda.
      (c) Selfishness and tribal bias were the most driving forces behind this controversial issue of naming within most of the South Sudanese’ communities, clans and tribes. The mistake was done by our own Southerners who were leaders or scholars in private sectors in Sudan’s government. These individuals’ ideology of division or bias was behind their leadership concentration when it came to their own interests of close lineages, communities, clans, tribes, etc. That is what I believe was a primary source behind their leadership objectives, where an individual had the power to promote his own section’s name as the combination name for other lineages, communities, clans, tribes, Payams (Divisions), Counties (Districts), even States if I am not mistaken.
      (d) Popularity did play a significant role then too; especially for personalities who were well known during all those past days, because their popularity was a very basic accelerator to this issue. Now it becomes harder to deal with because of those extremists who are not always abiding by the truth, even when they actually knew that they were totally wrong in supporting this controversial issue of names. Back then, those people didn’t respect the integrity of the offices they occupied. So my message to those extremists is this: please, you should honor the truth for the well being of our people’s integrity, peace, liberty, prosperity and harmony. Be a person with class by considering our late father of freedom, John Garang. His mission before he died was to straighten out these zigzag roads, and now it is time for us who are alive to make those roads straighter for our freedom. Furthermore, my mission here which God (Nhialic) has given me is to tackle the truth. And I hope those who are blessed with the vision of advocating for truth are going to join me for the sake of our people’s peace, freedom, liberty, prosperity and unity.
      In conclusion, my final piece of advice to those who want to be catalysts behind this messy situation of names among most of our lineages, communities, clans, and tribes in Southern Sudan: Please! Please! Please! Take a deep breath and think beyond the depth of your propaganda of divisions, nepotism, clannishness, tribalism and so forth. Because now it is time we (South Sudanese) need to be civilized rather than going back to the old days’ ideology of truth twisting. We just need to strengthen our unity in South Sudan; that is what I think should be a legitimate pathway to freedom, liberty, peace, unity, harmony, prosperity, etc. Again, our journey of strengthening things out was started by our late Dr. John Garang. And we shouldn’t be going back, in my opinion, when it comes to those controversial ideologists who are not unsuitable for our unity in South Sudan. I don’t think we can afford the resumption of that road, ladies and gentlemen. We just need to correct all those issues that are capable of undermining our harmony and our peaceful Bumas, Payams, Counties, states and nation. Let us all join our hands and solve this issue through a peaceful way, abiding by truth and honoring the facts, as a group or individually. Extreme pretense will not lead us into a successful society, nor will an evil heart of divisions, bias, nepotism, communalism, clannishness and tribalism lead us into a better society. The only oil for the engine of our society’s future development and prosperity is to always rely on the acceptance of truth.
      N/B: People should know that, historically; Dinka tribe cultural is based under clannish systems of governance. There is no what so call Dinka Bor that exists as a combination name for other tribes like Twic (Tuic) East, Nyarweng, and Hol. Bor is an independent tribe alone; it is factually 100 percent truth. Dinka or Jieng Twic /Tuic East tribe is an independent alone; it is factually 100 percent truth. The same thing with Nyarweng and Hol tribes, according to history, Dinka [Monyjang/Jieng] is the only name combining all the sub-tribes of the Dinka or Jieng tribe of South Sudan. (Justice Trust God [Nhialic]).
      Furthermore, Twic (Tuic) East and Bor are having a big gap when it comes to their languages’ accents and words too, characteristics; especially when you consider the similarities among Dinka or Jieng (Monyjang) sub-tribes. Dinka (Jieng) Twic (Tuic) tribe language is related to Dinka Padang (Padeng) language, Dinka Abiliang language, Dinka Ruweng language, Dinka Rek and the other Twic (Tuic) in West Nile, etc.
      Please, for you those who claimed the name Bor as our (Twic/Tuic East) name too. Forget about it, and don’t allow our people history disappear in a wrong way. If you don’t have any idea concerning the background of our people’s history, please don’t rush into support of anything you don’t have a clue. You might put yourself into a tricky way of politics or ideology that would disadvantage you and your own people. Before doing so, please seeks advice from our people back home who are specialist in history of our people.
      For me not going overboard, this is time to fix this issue, because our generation purpose is to setup good foundation for future generations. Example would be Our Late and our own Son and honorable Dr. John Garang had started the strengthening of Histories/things. Right now, is the appropriate time to deal with this issue without further do. Otherwise, the disappearing of our history is going to rest on our shoulders that are still alive at this point. And who wants to be blame for our history mess later down the line of many generations that are going to come after our lifetime? Plus, who wants to let that happen in his/her own watch? You individually would be the judge about your identity, deal with it or not deal with it. It is your choice individually.
      Suggested name for Dinka (Jieng) tribes/Counties in Jonglei State is ‘Southeastern Dinka (JiengJang) Counties.’ Again, those tribes or Counties are consists of Bor, Twic (Tuic) East and Duk (Dukkeen) (Nyarweng, Hol and others.)
      But where the name Dinka JiengJang (JiengJang) came from? Well, that is a very interesting question. The word “Jieng” means the people of the Jonglei state who are Dinka or Jieng by tribe, and also it is another name for the whole Dinka tribe that occupies the country of the South Sudan. What about the suffix “Jang”? The suffix “Jang” was derived from the language of Dinka other names, which in two full terminologies they call “Thuongjang /Thongmonyjang”. So either of the two terminologies is where the suffix “Jang” came from. Then, if you combine those two words, you would be able to come up with the name “JiengJang“. By the way, the Dinka language is also called Thongjieng. Sometimes it depends on what regions of Dinka land in South Sudan where a person is dwelling. Because in most of the Dinka’s sub-tribes, sections, clans, lineages, etc., live far away from one another for quite sometimes has allowed them to create their own accents and pronunciations; also it has created some deterioration in their languages original uniqueness. In addition, the word “Jang” in Dinka or Jieng Twic/Tuic East language it means “many or people (many people)”. I think you now know the meaning or the root of the Southeastern Dinka or Jieng (Jieng de Jonglei State of South Sudan, according to some people. To summarize, the Dinka JiengJang (Southeastern Dinka/Jieng) is the name of tribes of Dinka people who are dwelling in Jonglei State, South Sudan. Again, those sub-tribes of Dinka or Jieng are consisting of Bor, Twic (Tuic) East, Duk (Dukkeen) (Nyarweng, Hol, etc.). Also, you can call those tribes by their Counties’ names as Southeastern Dinka or Jieng Counties of Jonglei State (Jieng de Jonglei State as others put it). By their names, they are: Bor County, Twic East County and Duk County of Jonglei State, South Sudan. Furthermore, anyway I do call them as JiengJang Counties or JiengJang tribes of Jonglei State.

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    • 29 August 2011 18:48, by Cadaai ?o?

      Late Dr. John Garang de Mabior was born in June 23, 1945 and deceased on July 30, 2005 at the moderate age of 60 years old when he died through unanticipated death in helicopter crash over the mountainous region between the republic of South Sudan (Sudan before separation of the nation into two states) border and country of Uganda’s border.
      Garang who is from Dinka (Jieng) ethnic group, according to social class descriptions; he was born into a poor family in Wangulei village in Twic East County. He is from Jieng Tuic (Twic) East that consists of three sections as they are: Lith, Ajuong & Pakeer (checks more information about this tribe under chapter three, four and the Dinka Twic East new book titled: The Dinka Twic East: Why God (Nhialic) has chosen a leader from this tribe of Dinka (Jieng.) He is from Lith section of Dinka Twic East, and being specifically about him more, he is from Awulian Clan. Awulian is now part of Nyuak Payam that includes other two Clans such as Ayual & Dacuek. In addition too, Dinka Tuic East is parts of the broader Southeastern Jieng (Dinka) of the upper Nile region of the Sudan (currently Jonglei State) before Sudan had been divided into two countries (States.) Southeastern Dinka comprises of Dinka Bor, Dinka Twic (Tuic) East and Dinka Dukkeen/Duk (Nyarweng, Hol, and other tribes of Dinka being situated there.) Furthermore, Southeastern (JiengJang) Jieng has three Counties respectively, Counties like: Bor County, Twic East County and Duk County.
      Dinka (Jieng) Twic East tribe is currently being called as Twic East County, it is bordering these Counties (originally tribes) and the River Nile (White Nile): Southward is Bor County (Dinka/Jieng Bor tribe), in the East is bordering Pibor County (Murle tribe), from the northeast the County is Bordering Uror County (Lou Nuer tribe), northern part is bordering Duk County (Dinka/Jieng Duk/Dukkeen tribes: Nyarweng, Hol, etc.), and in the west its bordering the White Nile/River Nile (Toc).
      Garang was a Sudanese politician before he joined the rebel from 1983 to 2005 as their leader. He led the Sudan People Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) during the Second Sudanese Civil War, and following a Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) between Northern dominated government of Sudanese in Khartoum heading by President Omar el Bashir and Southern part of the republic of Sudan; that mostly dominated by the Africa Cultural Beliefs and Christian Believers as well. Before his unexpected death in helicopter crash in July 30, 2005, he did briefly shortly serve as First Vice President of the Republic of Sudan, and at the same time Garang was the Chairman of the SPLM/A dominance government of Southern Sudan according to Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) accord of Jan 9, 2005. According to Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) accord, Southern Sudan was granted self governing for the period of six (6) years by the International Community or world leading parties who were witnessing the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in Africa country of (Nairobi) Kenya where CPA was signed. Those six years were ended in Jan 9, 2011 in the form of a referendum based on people choices between unity and succession. Without any kind of doubts, South Sudanese enthusiastically voting out the interests of Northern government of Sudan, who was seriously wanted to see Sudan remained as a one nation or united country of Sudan.

      Garang education trends; as he was an orphan by the age of ten, he had his fees for school been paid by his uncle, going to schools in Wau and then Rumbek. In 1962 he joined the first Sudanese civil war, but because he was so young, the leaders encouraged him and others his age to seek an education. Because of the ongoing fighting, Garang was forced to attend his secondary education in Tanzania. After winning a scholarship, he went on to earn B.A in economics in 1969 from Grinnell College in Iowa, USA. He was known there for his bookishness. He was offered another scholarship to pursue graduate studies at the University of California, Berkeley, but chose to return to Tanzania and study East African agricultural economics as a Thomas J. Watson Fellow at the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM). At UDSM, he was a member of the University Students’ African Revolutionary Front. However, Garang soon decided to return to Sudan and join the rebels. There is many erroneous reporting that Garang met and befriended Yoweri Museveni, future president of Uganda, at this time; while both Garang and Museveni were students at UDSM in the 1960s, they did not attend at the same time.
      The civil war ended with the Addis Ababa Agreement of 1972 and Garang, like many rebels, was absorbed into the Sudanese military. For eleven years, he was a career soldier and rose from the rank of captain to colonel after taking the Infantry Officers Advanced Course at Fort Benning, Georgia. During this period, he took four years academic leave and received a master’s degree in agricultural economics and a Ph.D. from Iowa State University after writing a thesis on the agricultural development of Southern Sudan. By 1983, Col. Garang was serving as a senior instructor in the military academy in Wadi Sayedna 21 km from the centre of (Omdurman) where he instructed the cadets for more than four years and later he nominated to serve in the military researches department in the Army HQ in Khartoum.
      In 1983, Garang went to Mading Ngeth Agok (currently Bor Town), ostensibly to mediate with about 500 southern government soldiers in battalion 105 who were resisting being rotated to posts in the north. However, Garang was already part of a conspiracy among some officers in the Southern Command arranging for the defection of battalion 105 to the anti-government rebels. When the government attacked Mading Ngeth Agok in May and the battalion pulled out, Garang went by an alternate route to join them in the rebel stronghold in Ethiopia. By the end of July, Garang had brought over 3000 rebel soldiers under his control through the newly-created Sudan People Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A), which was opposed to military rule and Islam dominance of the country, and encouraged other army garrisons to mutiny against the Islam law imposed on the country by the government. This action marked the commonly agreed upon beginning of the Second Sudan Conflict which resulted in one and half million deaths over twenty years of conflict. Although Garang was Christian and most of the southern Sudan is a non-Muslim (mostly animist), he did not initially focus on the religious aspects of the war.
      The SPLA gained the backing of Libya, Uganda and Ethiopia. Garang and his army controlled a large part of the southern regions of the country, named New Sudan. He claimed his troops’ courage comes from "the conviction that we are fighting a just cause. That is something North Sudan and its people don’t have." Critics suggested financial motivations to his rebellion, noting that much of Sudan’s oil wealth lies in the south of the country.
      Garang refused to participate in the 1985 interim government or 1986 elections, remaining a rebel leader. However, the SPLA and government signed a peace agreement on 9 January 2005 in Nairobi, Kenya. On 9 July 2005, he was sworn in as vice-president, the second most powerful person in the country, following a ceremony in which he and President Omar Al-Bashir signed a power-sharing constitution. He also became the administrative head of a southern Sudan with limited autonomy for the six years before a scheduled referendum of possible secession. No Christian or southerner had ever held such a high government post. Commenting after the ceremony, Garang stated, "I congratulate the Sudanese people, this is not my peace or the peace of al-Bashir, it is the peace of the Sudanese people."
      As a leader, John Garang’s democratic credentials were often questioned. For example, according to Gill Lusk "John Garang did not tolerate dissent and anyone who disagreed with him was either imprisoned or killed". Under his leadership, the SPLA was accused of human rights abuses.
      The ideological profile of SPLA was as shadowy as Mr. Garang himself. He varied from Marxism to drawing support from Christian fundamentalists in the US.
      The United States Department argued that Garang’s presence in the government would have helped solve the Darfur conflict in western Sudan, but others consider these claims "excessively optimistic".
      In late July 2005, Garang died after the Ugandan presidential Mi-172 helicopter he was flying in crashed. He had been returning from a meeting in Rwakitura with long-time ally President Yoweri Museveni of Uganda. He did not tell the Sudanese government that he was going to this meeting and so did not take the presidential plane. To this day, nobody knows with whom Garang had met. Sudanese state television initially reported that Garang’s craft had landed safely, but Abdel Basset Sabdarat, the country’s Information Minister, went on TV hours later to deny the report. Actually, it was Yasir Arman, the SPLA/M spokesman who told the government that Garang plane had landed safely. His intention was to save time for internal arrangements in SPLA before Garang’s death was known. Garang’s plane crashed on a Friday and so remained missing for the following Saturday. During this time, the government believed he was in Southern Sudan. Soon afterwards, a statement released by the office of Sudanese President Omar el-Bashir confirmed that a Ugandan presidential helicopter crashed into "a mountain range in southern Sudan because of poor visibility and this resulted in the death of Dr. John Garang De Mabior, six of his colleagues and seven Ugandan crew members."His body was flown to New Site, a southern Sudanese settlement near the scene of the crash, where former rebel fighters and civilian supporters gathered to pay their respects to Garang. Garang’s funeral took place on August 3 in Juba. His widow Rebecca Nyandeng De Mabior promised to continue his work stating "In our culture, we say, if you kill the lion, you see what the lioness will do.”
      Both the Sudanese government and the head of the SPLA blamed the weather for the accident. There are, however, doubts as to the truth of this, especially among the rank-and-file of the SPLA. Yoweri Museveni, the Ugandan president, claims that the possibility of "external factors" having played a role could not be eliminated.
      Because Garang was considered instrumental in ending the civil war, the effect of Garang’s death upon the peace deal is uncertain. The government declared three days of national mourning, which did not stop large scale rioting in Khartoum, which killed at least 24 as youths from southern Sudan attacked northern Sudanese and clashed with security forces. After three days of violence, the death toll had risen to 84. Unrest was also reported in other parts of the country. Leading members of the SPLM, including Garang’s successor Salva Kiir Mayardit, stated that the peace process would continue. Analysts suggested that the death could result in anything from a new democratic openness in the SPLA, which some have criticized for being overly dominated by Garang, to an outbreak of open warfare between the various southern factions that Garang had brought together.

      About Dr. John Garang de Mabior death, how do many Christians’ Believers, plus other majorities of South Sudanese (Sudanese) people and their formers traditional Prophecies or Spirituals leaders like Ngundeng from the Nuer tribe and others think about him?
      The majority of South Sudanese do believe that before the man (Dr. Garang) himself dies in helicopter crash in July 30, 2005. Most people claimed that his death was predicted or foretold even before the incident of his death has had happened yet. It’s what the majority of South Sudanese (Sudanese) do believe that Dr. Garang was going to die immediately after he has completed the missions of the South Sudanese (Sudanese). And do you know that it did happen though, through the same way it was predicted by their traditional prophet or persona (person) like Ngundeng of the Nuer tribe many years ago? In addition too, both of his missions at the times of Sudan’s civil war plus his death was all together was being acclaimed by people as well. The conflict in Sudan was also been predicted inside the Bible by Prophet Isaiah and among other Prophets from the Old Testaments according to Christian’s Believers and Scholars or Theologist. And one example, would rely on this Bible Chapter is: Isaiah 18 and among other Chapters of Bible Old Testament section. That is why it had been one of the reasons why most Christians’ Believers sometimes aligned Dr. Garang of Sudan’s civil war to what Moses of the Israel had done to his people of the Israel many centuries ago as well. Even Dr. Garang’s death in helicopter crash is being described in the way the Moses of the Israel death. Of course, the relativity of all these will be aligned too with currently President of South Sudan (Sudanese) Dr. Kiir being described as like Joshua of the Israelis after Dr. Kiir took over the leadership of his predecessor (Dr. Garang) the same way Joshua did after Moses death. Actually, it resembled what Joshua did after Moses’s death when he had completed the mission of the Israel people.
      Did Dr. Garang know that he is going to die after he had completed the civil war goals? Yes, absolutely Dr. Garang knew that he is going to die after he had completed the main purpose or mission of the war. And this is my evidence, in 2004 after everything for Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) had been completed. Dr. Garang went to his home tribe of the Dinka (Jieng) Tuïc East, and called meeting in Panyagor town which is headquarter of the Twic East County. And Dr. Garang says this to his people of the Jieng Twic East, and I quote, “??n cï baai n?? (n??k) ri??? or I have killed the land as my ri???.” What ri??? means in Jieng Twic East culture or tradition, well the word ri??? means the killing of cow, goat, sheep, plus others purposely through the name of ri???. It is commonly uses, practices or customs pride by young man and not girl culture’s duty in any way or another. If individual kills ones of the above aforementioned animals purposely in the name of ri???. According to Dinka Tuic East beliefs, the ri??? killer as always must not eat, touches, and/or even comes close to that ri???’s meat. Because when he does so, the individual can be becoming dumb, mad, insane, stupid, etc.
      So the bottom-line is, according to my personal analysis about Dr. John Garang de Mabior quote above regarding ri???, he did mean to say that he is not going to eat anything that will come out as a consequence of the new nation after civil war; because his fighting for it resembled to him like the killing of ri??? in his Jieng Twic (Tuïc) East’s culture. Where that particular person cannot eat, touches and/or come close to your ri??? after it becomes meat.
      My response to lingering accusations toward Dr. Garang
      My message to people who had been claiming that Dr. Garang was always been the killer of SPLM/A leaders whoever seems to be disagreed with him, please be careful with your unapproved claims. Why? Dr. Garang was not actually the killer. The accusation was just been politically motivated and/or usually dirty game of politics against him because he was the leader of the Sudan People Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A). Also it was that kind of scapegoat accuses who were aligned with cynical hearts of smearing. However, in actually sense without politics views attached to it; he has saved a lot of leaders’ lives during the movement in hands of leaders who were often thirsty for the higher levels of SPLM/A leadership’s positions, interests or other backgrounds’ based tribalism, nepotism (brotherhood & sisterhood), education levels, ignorant, corruptions, and many other motivations.
      First of all, this man himself had saved lots of people lives during the movement, and people still don’t believe him, especially when it comes to anybody who may have been accused for big crimes committed by any personnel in the movement. And that person or group of people was/were about to be prosecuted through both hangings or shootings death, and the issue has reached Dr. Garang through either secret way or openly way. Dr. Garang was not always allowing that killings to happen. No matter how severe the crimes committed by a person or group of people may have been raised to higher level. That person or group of people was/were not often been killed when he knows the issue or the issue has come to his hands. In whatsoever, I know sometimes being a leader; every problem rested in on your shoulders though. But please, honor the man with lots of credits for the unbelievable job, he had done to South Sudanese, by the way, I am not here to prevent any criticisms against him. Because it is what it is?
      Second, if he would have been the killer of the SPLM /A leaders back then, he should have killed CDR. Kerubino Kuanyin Bol, CDR. Arok Thon Arok, and many others ranking leaders of those days who did rebelled against his leadership; instead he just allows them be jailed.
      Thirdly, Dr. Garang is from the well principled and characterized tribe of the Dinka Twic East where people don’t believe in bloodshed through deceitful reasons, manners, misleading, causes and many on. These people don’t believe in such unethical behaviors in their culture’s values or beliefs.
      Fourth, however; the time I think Dr. Garang did allow killings was the time Dr. Riek and his associates occupied the Jieng Tuic East (Twic East County headquarter of Panyagor) land as a revenge against traitors. Also if he would have had a chance, he could have killed Dr. Riek for him being disrespectful about the people of the Dinka Twic East. Especially at the time Dr. Riek and his followers have been meeting in Panyagor, in which Dr. Garang takes it as disrespect manners to his own of the Dinka (Twic) Tuic East. That time was the time for him to even kill Dr. Riek as a leader plus whoever was there with him as a leader. He was rights to do so against traitors over the Dinka Twic East land, and it was totally supported by their traditional principles when it comes to conflict’s rules. The Jieng Tuic East people are calm, non-greedy for other people belongings, non-provocative behavior people; but if you provoke them, their revenge always severe.

      “Trust is the glue of life. It’s the most essential ingredient in effective communication. It’s the foundational principle that holds all relationships.” –Stephen R. Covey

      “Many speculations and rumors were running around, but I was taught that always jumping to conclusion without having all the facts is indeed ignorance and ultimately makes one look as an idiot at the end.” By Daniel Bushery Daniel

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    • 29 August 2011 20:54, by watchout

      Dear brother
      Dinka are one despite the fact that they are many, whether you are Bhar-el-ghazal, Bor, Ngok e.t.c and to my fellows Dinka Bor don’t accept that division that there is Twic East, Duk and Bor you remain united and bear in minds that there are some element who are trying to create conflict between you for the sake to forget your enemies. I hope you are all wise and having higher intelligent quotients than those who claim to be more wise.

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  • 29 August 2011 12:55, by Dinkawarrior

    “Machar’s 1991 Nasir Declaration called for the right of self-determination for the Southerners to be the SPLM’s main objective?”
    “In 1992 a combined force of armed Nuer civilians and soldiers of Machar’s Nasir faction attacked Garang’s hometown of Bor in Jonglei state. The offensive against mainly defenseless members of Garang’s Dinka tribe resulted in the death or maiming of hundreds if not thousands of people and the displacement of tens of thousands more”


    Mr. Phonier! You described them as defenseless members of Garang’s Dinka tribe death or maiming of hundreds if not thousands?
    The Mighty Dinkawarriors were attacking Arabs militaries in Juba while the Cowardice Nuer men murdering women, children, and looting their belongings. Have you seen the different? Well, the Traitor Riek talks about the so called right of self-determination for the Southerners!

    You liar Mr. Turncoat, you suppose not to killed civilians instead of Garang’s forces under Juba.
    If you fought for self-determination you would have deal with Arab not own people you want to be a leader. Sorry Mr. Nyamnyam you justified your message you said as propaganda at the times of 1991 Bor Massacred.

    The death number of people was not only hundreds or thousands; it was three hundred thousand to halve a million people apart from two point five million killed by Arabs. Can you imagine those visionless people like him!
    Riek is not only a greedy vulture but also a hypocritical chameleon that can change from time to times.

    For example,
    (1) He worked for Regime Arab government then he left
    (2) He worked for the SPLM/A then he defected
    (3) He joined Lam Akol then he decamped
    (4) He was deceiving by Regime Arab to come back 1997 and signed oil peace deal in order for him to get 50% and his people will be killed then he felt shame and returned.
    (5) He returned to Garang and regrets for what he did then his apology was accepted.

    After all where is John Garang Mr. Traitor? You sins against humanity will never be forgetting!
    Personally, I Dinkawarrior forgive you not because you’re a right man!
    But according to Jesus Christ the son of living God “And forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass against us”

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  • 29 August 2011 15:08, by acuil deng

    Unlike "Omar Bashir of Sudan", Dr. Machar was not indicted by the International Criminal Court (ICC) for war crimes, or crimes against humanity. However; this can not be taken as a proof of his innocence, rather than his guiltiness. The strong feelings, and the high emotions shown by some of our fellow citizens from "Dinka Bor", is totally, understandable. In addition, for Dr. Machar taking full responsibility, and by reaching out to "Bor community", seeking to make amends and to reconcile. I think there should be enough room in our hearts for this man, and for us to be a great nation we should forgive, and not forget.

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    • 29 August 2011 16:27, by Mach Achiek

      Dear readers,

      It appeared that most of you have not yet understood the true meaning of apology. Accepting Dr. Riek’s apology is not congruent with endorsing his political ambition. I think the main reason behind his apology was to separate himself and the wider Nuer’s people; which is quite right in my opinion because his 1991 split with the main SPLM/A has left the Naath as nothing but a bound of traitors who were pretending to be working hard for the separation of South Sudan when their political and military strategy from 1991-2002 tell us that; had they succeeded to topple Garang then,our future would have remain dull forever.

      There is nothing to hold against the wider Nuer, they community was a victim of poor leadership. Self-determination was something good for the people of South Sudan, but does it need the absolute massacre of Dinka Bor community for Dr John Garang to accept it as a vision for the movement?.

      On the pretext that Dinka Bor should apologize to the Nuer community too is very naive indeed. In comparison to the infamous atrocities carry out by Riek’s tribes men,Nuer too has a right to point out atrocities carrier out by Dinka Bor under the command of Dr. John.

      There is no doubt that Nuer too has suffered a lots during the course of arms struggles, but the question is; was their suffering happened as a result of Dinka Bor action against them?. SPLA killed people in Gaajak, Gaawer, Bull, Jinkany, Lou and many more as Nuers claimed. But, was SPLA a Dinka Bor army then?.

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  • 29 August 2011 15:44, by Manyaar

    a very huge thanks goes to Dr Riek Machar. thats what a true man and interlectual does, your a pology is accepted.who will deny giving you this leadership after your apology.

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  • 29 August 2011 15:45, by kuac Agol

    @ Riak Machar Teny Dhurgon,

    You are actually a failed Vice President of South Sudan, are you happy when you are now holding this position meanwhile you have killed thousands and thousands of innocent people from Bor community.

    I will not accept your fucken apology which some people like it or not.Your interests will later on back South Sudan in zero point believe me or not. Remember this proverb’’ Rolling stone gather no moss’’Shame and useless VP of South Sudan.

    We use your apology as an evidence to sue you to the International Criminal Court and you will not deny any single version of the documented crime against humanity and massacre in Bor.

    Oh, God hep South Sudan.

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    • 29 August 2011 16:13, by Yic-Edu

      It is too late for now then let him start from where he started his regime but not here in Juba.

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  • 29 August 2011 16:18, by Cadaai ?o?

    Historian and Identity Advocacy View:

    Riek Machar has not yet apologize to Dinka Twic East tribe where he has done unforgetable damages. It is good for him to apologize to Dinka Bor. That’s good for to Dinka Bor community in Mading Ngeth Angok.

    Twic Dinka east Massacre people are still waiting in Panyangor for their apology.

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  • 29 August 2011 16:24, by Cadaai ?o?

    Late Dr. John Garang de Mabior was born in June 23, 1945 and deceased on July 30, 2005 at the moderate age of 60 years old when he died through unanticipated death in helicopter crash over the mountainous region between the republic of South Sudan (Sudan before separation of the nation into two states) border and country of Uganda’s border.
    Garang who is from Dinka (Jieng) ethnic group, according to social class descriptions; he was born into a poor family in Wangulei village in Twic East County. He is from Jieng Tuic (Twic) East that consists of three sections as they are: Lith, Ajuong & Pakeer (checks more information about this tribe under chapter three, four and the Dinka Twic East new book titled: The Dinka Twic East: Why God (Nhialic) has chosen a leader from this tribe of Dinka (Jieng.) He is from Lith section of Dinka Twic East, and being specifically about him more, he is from Awulian Clan. Awulian is now part of Nyuak Payam that includes other two Clans such as Ayual & Dacuek. In addition too, Dinka Tuic East is parts of the broader Southeastern Jieng (Dinka) of the upper Nile region of the Sudan (currently Jonglei State) before Sudan had been divided into two countries (States.) Southeastern Dinka comprises of Dinka Bor, Dinka Twic (Tuic) East and Dinka Dukkeen/Duk (Nyarweng, Hol, and other tribes of Dinka being situated there.) Furthermore, Southeastern (JiengJang) Jieng has three Counties respectively, Counties like: Bor County, Twic East County and Duk County.
    Dinka (Jieng) Twic East tribe is currently being called as Twic East County, it is bordering these Counties (originally tribes) and the River Nile (White Nile): Southward is Bor County (Dinka/Jieng Bor tribe), in the East is bordering Pibor County (Murle tribe), from the northeast the County is Bordering Uror County (Lou Nuer tribe), northern part is bordering Duk County (Dinka/Jieng Duk/Dukkeen tribes: Nyarweng, Hol, etc.), and in the west its bordering the White Nile/River Nile (Toc).
    Garang was a Sudanese politician before he joined the rebel from 1983 to 2005 as their leader. He led the Sudan People Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) during the Second Sudanese Civil War, and following a Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) between Northern dominated government of Sudanese in Khartoum heading by President Omar el Bashir and Southern part of the republic of Sudan; that mostly dominated by the Africa Cultural Beliefs and Christian Believers as well. Before his unexpected death in helicopter crash in July 30, 2005, he did briefly shortly serve as First Vice President of the Republic of Sudan, and at the same time Garang was the Chairman of the SPLM/A dominance government of Southern Sudan according to Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) accord of Jan 9, 2005. According to Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) accord, Southern Sudan was granted self governing for the period of six (6) years by the International Community or world leading parties who were witnessing the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in Africa country of (Nairobi) Kenya where CPA was signed. Those six years were ended in Jan 9, 2011 in the form of a referendum based on people choices between unity and succession. Without any kind of doubts, South Sudanese enthusiastically voting out the interests of Northern government of Sudan, who was seriously wanted to see Sudan remained as a one nation or united country of Sudan.

    Garang education trends; as he was an orphan by the age of ten, he had his fees for school been paid by his uncle, going to schools in Wau and then Rumbek. In 1962 he joined the first Sudanese civil war, but because he was so young, the leaders encouraged him and others his age to seek an education. Because of the ongoing fighting, Garang was forced to attend his secondary education in Tanzania. After winning a scholarship, he went on to earn B.A in economics in 1969 from Grinnell College in Iowa, USA. He was known there for his bookishness. He was offered another scholarship to pursue graduate studies at the University of California, Berkeley, but chose to return to Tanzania and study East African agricultural economics as a Thomas J. Watson Fellow at the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM). At UDSM, he was a member of the University Students’ African Revolutionary Front. However, Garang soon decided to return to Sudan and join the rebels. There is many erroneous reporting that Garang met and befriended Yoweri Museveni, future president of Uganda, at this time; while both Garang and Museveni were students at UDSM in the 1960s, they did not attend at the same time.
    The civil war ended with the Addis Ababa Agreement of 1972 and Garang, like many rebels, was absorbed into the Sudanese military. For eleven years, he was a career soldier and rose from the rank of captain to colonel after taking the Infantry Officers Advanced Course at Fort Benning, Georgia. During this period, he took four years academic leave and received a master’s degree in agricultural economics and a Ph.D. from Iowa State University after writing a thesis on the agricultural development of Southern Sudan. By 1983, Col. Garang was serving as a senior instructor in the military academy in Wadi Sayedna 21 km from the centre of (Omdurman) where he instructed the cadets for more than four years and later he nominated to serve in the military researches department in the Army HQ in Khartoum.
    In 1983, Garang went to Mading Ngeth Agok (currently Bor Town), ostensibly to mediate with about 500 southern government soldiers in battalion 105 who were resisting being rotated to posts in the north. However, Garang was already part of a conspiracy among some officers in the Southern Command arranging for the defection of battalion 105 to the anti-government rebels. When the government attacked Mading Ngeth Agok in May and the battalion pulled out, Garang went by an alternate route to join them in the rebel stronghold in Ethiopia. By the end of July, Garang had brought over 3000 rebel soldiers under his control through the newly-created Sudan People Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A), which was opposed to military rule and Islam dominance of the country, and encouraged other army garrisons to mutiny against the Islam law imposed on the country by the government. This action marked the commonly agreed upon beginning of the Second Sudan Conflict which resulted in one and half million deaths over twenty years of conflict. Although Garang was Christian and most of the southern Sudan is a non-Muslim (mostly animist), he did not initially focus on the religious aspects of the war.
    The SPLA gained the backing of Libya, Uganda and Ethiopia. Garang and his army controlled a large part of the southern regions of the country, named New Sudan. He claimed his troops’ courage comes from "the conviction that we are fighting a just cause. That is something North Sudan and its people don’t have." Critics suggested financial motivations to his rebellion, noting that much of Sudan’s oil wealth lies in the south of the country.
    Garang refused to participate in the 1985 interim government or 1986 elections, remaining a rebel leader. However, the SPLA and government signed a peace agreement on 9 January 2005 in Nairobi, Kenya. On 9 July 2005, he was sworn in as vice-president, the second most powerful person in the country, following a ceremony in which he and President Omar Al-Bashir signed a power-sharing constitution. He also became the administrative head of a southern Sudan with limited autonomy for the six years before a scheduled referendum of possible secession. No Christian or southerner had ever held such a high government post. Commenting after the ceremony, Garang stated, "I congratulate the Sudanese people, this is not my peace or the peace of al-Bashir, it is the peace of the Sudanese people."
    As a leader, John Garang’s democratic credentials were often questioned. For example, according to Gill Lusk "John Garang did not tolerate dissent and anyone who disagreed with him was either imprisoned or killed". Under his leadership, the SPLA was accused of human rights abuses.
    The ideological profile of SPLA was as shadowy as Mr. Garang himself. He varied from Marxism to drawing support from Christian fundamentalists in the US.
    The United States Department argued that Garang’s presence in the government would have helped solve the Darfur conflict in western Sudan, but others consider these claims "excessively optimistic".
    In late July 2005, Garang died after the Ugandan presidential Mi-172 helicopter he was flying in crashed. He had been returning from a meeting in Rwakitura with long-time ally President Yoweri Museveni of Uganda. He did not tell the Sudanese government that he was going to this meeting and so did not take the presidential plane. To this day, nobody knows with whom Garang had met. Sudanese state television initially reported that Garang’s craft had landed safely, but Abdel Basset Sabdarat, the country’s Information Minister, went on TV hours later to deny the report. Actually, it was Yasir Arman, the SPLA/M spokesman who told the government that Garang plane had landed safely. His intention was to save time for internal arrangements in SPLA before Garang’s death was known. Garang’s plane crashed on a Friday and so remained missing for the following Saturday. During this time, the government believed he was in Southern Sudan. Soon afterwards, a statement released by the office of Sudanese President Omar el-Bashir confirmed that a Ugandan presidential helicopter crashed into "a mountain range in southern Sudan because of poor visibility and this resulted in the death of Dr. John Garang De Mabior, six of his colleagues and seven Ugandan crew members."His body was flown to New Site, a southern Sudanese settlement near the scene of the crash, where former rebel fighters and civilian supporters gathered to pay their respects to Garang. Garang’s funeral took place on August 3 in Juba. His widow Rebecca Nyandeng De Mabior promised to continue his work stating "In our culture, we say, if you kill the lion, you see what the lioness will do.”
    Both the Sudanese government and the head of the SPLA blamed the weather for the accident. There are, however, doubts as to the truth of this, especially among the rank-and-file of the SPLA. Yoweri Museveni, the Ugandan president, claims that the possibility of "external factors" having played a role could not be eliminated.
    Because Garang was considered instrumental in ending the civil war, the effect of Garang’s death upon the peace deal is uncertain. The government declared three days of national mourning, which did not stop large scale rioting in Khartoum, which killed at least 24 as youths from southern Sudan attacked northern Sudanese and clashed with security forces. After three days of violence, the death toll had risen to 84. Unrest was also reported in other parts of the country. Leading members of the SPLM, including Garang’s successor Salva Kiir Mayardit, stated that the peace process would continue. Analysts suggested that the death could result in anything from a new democratic openness in the SPLA, which some have criticized for being overly dominated by Garang, to an outbreak of open warfare between the various southern factions that Garang had brought together.

    About Dr. John Garang de Mabior death, how do many Christians’ Believers, plus other majorities of South Sudanese (Sudanese) people and their formers traditional Prophecies or Spirituals leaders like Ngundeng from the Nuer tribe and others think about him?
    The majority of South Sudanese do believe that before the man (Dr. Garang) himself dies in helicopter crash in July 30, 2005. Most people claimed that his death was predicted or foretold even before the incident of his death has had happened yet. It’s what the majority of South Sudanese (Sudanese) do believe that Dr. Garang was going to die immediately after he has completed the missions of the South Sudanese (Sudanese). And do you know that it did happen though, through the same way it was predicted by their traditional prophet or persona (person) like Ngundeng of the Nuer tribe many years ago? In addition too, both of his missions at the times of Sudan’s civil war plus his death was all together was being acclaimed by people as well. The conflict in Sudan was also been predicted inside the Bible by Prophet Isaiah and among other Prophets from the Old Testaments according to Christian’s Believers and Scholars or Theologist. And one example, would rely on this Bible Chapter is: Isaiah 18 and among other Chapters of Bible Old Testament section. That is why it had been one of the reasons why most Christians’ Believers sometimes aligned Dr. Garang of Sudan’s civil war to what Moses of the Israel had done to his people of the Israel many centuries ago as well. Even Dr. Garang’s death in helicopter crash is being described in the way the Moses of the Israel death. Of course, the relativity of all these will be aligned too with currently President of South Sudan (Sudanese) Dr. Kiir being described as like Joshua of the Israelis after Dr. Kiir took over the leadership of his predecessor (Dr. Garang) the same way Joshua did after Moses death. Actually, it resembled what Joshua did after Moses’s death when he had completed the mission of the Israel people.
    Did Dr. Garang know that he is going to die after he had completed the civil war goals? Yes, absolutely Dr. Garang knew that he is going to die after he had completed the main purpose or mission of the war. And this is my evidence, in 2004 after everything for Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) had been completed. Dr. Garang went to his home tribe of the Dinka (Jieng) Tuïc East, and called meeting in Panyagor town which is headquarter of the Twic East County. And Dr. Garang says this to his people of the Jieng Twic East, and I quote, “??n cï baai n?? (n??k) ri??? or I have killed the land as my ri???.” What ri??? means in Jieng Twic East culture or tradition, well the word ri??? means the killing of cow, goat, sheep, plus others purposely through the name of ri???. It is commonly uses, practices or customs pride by young man and not girl culture’s duty in any way or another. If individual kills ones of the above aforementioned animals purposely in the name of ri???. According to Dinka Tuic East beliefs, the ri??? killer as always must not eat, touches, and/or even comes close to that ri???’s meat. Because when he does so, the individual can be becoming dumb, mad, insane, stupid, etc.
    So the bottom-line is, according to my personal analysis about Dr. John Garang de Mabior quote above regarding ri???, he did mean to say that he is not going to eat anything that will come out as a consequence of the new nation after civil war; because his fighting for it resembled to him like the killing of ri??? in his Jieng Twic (Tuïc) East’s culture. Where that particular person cannot eat, touches and/or come close to your ri??? after it becomes meat.
    My response to lingering accusations toward Dr. Garang
    My message to people who had been claiming that Dr. Garang was always been the killer of SPLM/A leaders whoever seems to be disagreed with him, please be careful with your unapproved claims. Why? Dr. Garang was not actually the killer. The accusation was just been politically motivated and/or usually dirty game of politics against him because he was the leader of the Sudan People Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A). Also it was that kind of scapegoat accuses who were aligned with cynical hearts of smearing. However, in actually sense without politics views attached to it; he has saved a lot of leaders’ lives during the movement in hands of leaders who were often thirsty for the higher levels of SPLM/A leadership’s positions, interests or other backgrounds’ based tribalism, nepotism (brotherhood & sisterhood), education levels, ignorant, corruptions, and many other motivations.
    First of all, this man himself had saved lots of people lives during the movement, and people still don’t believe him, especially when it comes to anybody who may have been accused for big crimes committed by any personnel in the movement. And that person or group of people was/were about to be prosecuted through both hangings or shootings death, and the issue has reached Dr. Garang through either secret way or openly way. Dr. Garang was not always allowing that killings to happen. No matter how severe the crimes committed by a person or group of people may have been raised to higher level. That person or group of people was/were not often been killed when he knows the issue or the issue has come to his hands. In whatsoever, I know sometimes being a leader; every problem rested in on your shoulders though. But please, honor the man with lots of credits for the unbelievable job, he had done to South Sudanese, by the way, I am not here to prevent any criticisms against him. Because it is what it is?
    Second, if he would have been the killer of the SPLM /A leaders back then, he should have killed CDR. Kerubino Kuanyin Bol, CDR. Arok Thon Arok, and many others ranking leaders of those days who did rebelled against his leadership; instead he just allows them be jailed.
    Thirdly, Dr. Garang is from the well principled and characterized tribe of the Dinka Twic East where people don’t believe in bloodshed through deceitful reasons, manners, misleading, causes and many on. These people don’t believe in such unethical behaviors in their culture’s values or beliefs.
    Fourth, however; the time I think Dr. Garang did allow killings was the time Dr. Riek and his associates occupied the Jieng Tuic East (Twic East County headquarter of Panyagor) land as a revenge against traitors. Also if he would have had a chance, he could have killed Dr. Riek for him being disrespectful about the people of the Dinka Twic East. Especially at the time Dr. Riek and his followers have been meeting in Panyagor, in which Dr. Garang takes it as disrespect manners to his own of the Dinka (Twic) Tuic East. That time was the time for him to even kill Dr. Riek as a leader plus whoever was there with him as a leader. He was rights to do so against traitors over the Dinka Twic East land, and it was totally supported by their traditional principles when it comes to conflict’s rules. The Jieng Tuic East people are calm, non-greedy for other people belongings, non-provocative behavior people; but if you provoke them, their revenge always severe.

    “Trust is the glue of life. It’s the most essential ingredient in effective communication. It’s the foundational principle that holds all relationships.” –Stephen R. Covey

    “Many speculations and rumors were running around, but I was taught that always jumping to conclusion without having all the facts is indeed ignorance and ultimately makes one look as an idiot at the end.” By Daniel Bushery Daniel

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  • 29 August 2011 16:26, by Cadaai ?o?

    The true tribe of Dr. Garang in Dinka

    “Let’s also drop this crazy idea, that we all must be Arab, even God will not accept it.” By John Garang de Mabior
    “And Moses said unto the children of Israel, see, the LORD hath called by name Bezaleel the son Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah; / And he hath filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all manner of workmanship; / And to devise curious works, to work in gold, and in silver, and in brass, / And in the cutting of stones, to set them, and in carving of wood, to make any manner of cunning work.” Bible Quote
    “You don’t choose your family. They are God’s gift to you, as you are to them.” Desmond Tutu
    “Dinka Twic-east is a reclusive, peaceful and principled community- it has NEVER embarked on an attack on other tribes, and it does NOT…” Source: www.sudantribune.com
    “Who is this to amends God Creations, this person; I would say is against God. If this problem of mine is send to God, I will win this case.” By Dr. John Garang de Mabior

    “Të yïn yith tääutëden ke Nhialic ke yï thiei arëëtic awär ran cï yith ye tääutëden.” By Thonmakol de Garang

    Dinka Twic East is one of the Dinka communities located in Jonglei State (formerly being known as the Upper Nile region before Sudan being separated into two Nations of South Sudan and North Sudan) of the republic of South Sudan. The Jieng Tuic East (tribe) community is now becoming at currently status as Twic East County after the longest sufferings of makeover and modernized of the old Sudan into new changes (revolutions). Changes that are now turning out to be at stack of two newest nations (states): of the republic of South Sudan and the republic of North Sudan.
    Twic East County is bordering these Counties: Bor County, Pibor County, Uror County and Duk County in Jonglei State, South Sudan. As always historically, the Dinka Twic East people are better known well for their good and common characteristics (attitudes) that are often appreciatable or admirable to many people. They are including some of the following virtues: calm, tolerant, kind, honesty, wisdom (conscience), compassion, hospitality, leadership, intelligent, unselfish, non-greedy, non-violent behavior people, and more views toward a diplomatic solution than a violent solution and so many other beauties that are associated with their good attitudes or conducts.
    “Jonglei’s Twic East ‘clever boy’ reunites with parents.” By Philip Thon Aleu; July 7, 2009 at the Sudan’s tribune website: www.sudantribune.com
    Jieng Tuic East is one of the components that made up the general Dinka (Jieng) ethnic groups located in South Sudan. Also, Dinka is categorized under the Nilotic ethnic group living in Africa continent. This whole tribe of Jieng (Dinka) is divided into five regional aligned with geographical classifications based on dwelling places, where an individual branch of the Dinka tribe is being situated in South Sudan. So here are those divisions: Northeastern Dinka, Western Dinka (Northwestern), Southeastern Dinka, and Central (South Central) Dinka and Southwestern Dinka.
    Northeastern Jieng (Dinka): Paweny, Luach, Thoi, Rut, Lual Yak, Ageer, Nyiel and Dongjol.
    Northwestern Jieng (Dinka): Panaruu, Alor, Abyei.
    Southeastern Jieng (Dinka): Twic/Tuic East: Lith section: [Abek, Adhiok, Kongor, Ayual, Dacuek & Awulian. Ajuong section: [Abiong, Adiang, Ayolien (Ayoliel), Kuac & Nyapiny] and Pakeer section: Anok, Akonycok, Bereh, Cir, & Hol), Bor: Athoc section: [Juet, Abuodit (Abuotdit), Alian, Pathuyith, Biong & Baidit (Angakuei] and Gok section: [Adol, Gol, Abang, Gualla, Abiy, Palek, Kuedok, Koch, Atet & Deer], Dukkeen/Duk: (Nyarweng, Hol, etc.), and Aborom (more information needed about this group).
    Central or South Central Jieng (Dinka): Aliab, Thany, Aker, Ciec/kiec (Ciem, Cic, Chiech, Kwac, Ajak, Ador), Gok (Gauk, Cok), Agar (More information needed), Atuot (more and clear information is needs about Atuot).
    Southwestern or Western Jieng (Dinka): Rek (Raik), Abiem (Ajong Dit, Ajong Thi, Akany Kok, Akern Jok, Apuoth, Apwoth, Anei), Aguok (Agwok), Apuk, Awan, Lau, Luac, Malual (Malwal, Atoktou, Duliit, Korok, Makem, Peth), Paliet (Baliet, Ajak, Buoncwai, Bon Shwai, Bwoncwai, Kongder, Kondair, Thany Bur, Tainbour), Palioupiny (Palioping, Akjuet, Akwang, Ayat, Cimel, Gomjuer), Tuic (Twic, Twich, Twij, Adiang, Amiol, Nyang, Thon). The Luac dialect is different from Luac dialect in Northwestern Dinka.
    Source: http://www.ethnologue.com
    “Acknowledging this fact is a tribute to such heroic sacrifices. It is also in accord with the Dinka religion, Acuukism/Nhialicism, which requires that we speak truth till we expire. In saying that, I am only making a statement of facts, not a political statement. Source:www.madingaweil.com/Dau Deng/Santino Mabek Dau
    According to the world scholars of researchers, the Dinka (Jieng) population is being estimated at around or about 4-5 million people within the country of the republic of South Sudan. That meant that the Dinka was almost 14% of the entire population of the country of Sudan before separation. However, because of their having prized bride wealth more than others in the region, plus long civil war causes; the Dinka population did not only dwindle, but it clearly lagged behind the rest of the country in terms of population growth, and its national proportion has since dropped to almost 10% of the national population and is only 40% of the South. At this point, again the Dinka is estimated at 4-5 million people. The latest figures, which are yet to be verified, estimate the South Eastern Dinka (Bor, Twic, Duk and Aborom) at 300 000 people, North Eastern Dinka (Paweny, Luach, Thoi, Rut, Lual Yak, Ageer, Nyiel and Dongjol, etc.) at 300 000 people while North Western Dinka (Panaruu, Alor, Abyei) at 200 000 people. This means that the entire population of the Dinka in Upper Nile (minus Abyei) is almost 800 000 out of 4-5 million people. The rest of the Dinka population, therefore, comes entirely from Bhar el Ghazel region.
    The Dinka believes in a universe single God, whom they call Nhialic. They believe Nhialic is the Creator (Duci??k) Human contact God (Nhialic) through spiritual intermediaries and entities called Yath and Jok/Jak many years ago. They believe that the spirits of the departed become part of the spiritual sphere of the life. They have rejected outright attempts to convert them to Islam by the Muslims from Northern Sudan. Nevertheless, they have been somewhat open to Christian missionaries. The Sudan interior Mission began work among the Dinka in the 1930s, along with the Uduk and Mabaan people (Persons). From these groups, approximately 4-8% practice Christianity.

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  • 29 August 2011 17:54, by Kim Deng

    The 2nd split between the Separatists and Unionists within SPLA/M in 1991

    There have been many separatists within the SPLA/M since 1983 who believed that Garang’s “New Sudan,” vision must be challenged within until their strategy yielded signal towards Garang’s “New Sudan,” vision in 1991 due to what we call “Nasir move,” the very blessing day for Southern Sudanese, the Nasir declaration of August 28, 1991 which got birth to “self-determination for South Sudan” http://www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article27738 it divided the movement [SPLA/M] into two factions once again; the SPLA/M-Torit faction under the command of Mr. Marxist-Leninist Garang with his self-claimed “New Sudan/United Secular Sudan,” vision and the SPLM/A-Nasir faction under the leadership of Dr. Riek Machar Teny-Dhurgon with his “self-determination for South Sudan.” http://www.africa.upenn.edu.Hornet/sd_machar.html

    Dr. Riek was compelled to declare Nasir move, not only because Mr. Garang was running the movement like his own property which was acknowledged by Lt. Gen. Salva Kiir after it was already too late in 2004 when he find himself openly at odds with his superior, but due to lack of clear directions, objectives, principles and human rights for/in the movement. Therefore, if the Naath/Nuer as a community has been hungry for leadership as Jaang/Dinka always shamelessly claims it, why would Lt. Col Samuel Gai Tut select Mr. Akuot Atem who is a Dinka by tribe to be the leader of the movement in 1983 if not only the selection was rejected by Mr. Marxist-Leninist Garang? Why would CDR. William Nyuon Bany aim his Pistol at Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut, CDR. Copra Abdalla William Chuol Deng and their supporters just to secure another Dinkaman, Mr. Garang’s leadership?

    In the Garangist mental scheme, all the “anti-New Sudan,” who still believes in Anya-Nya II vision of secession must be eliminated. As far as Garang knew, the SPLA forces under his commands had every reason to believe that they had upper hand and that they could make it all the way to Nasir. Garang thought that the SPLM/A-Nasir faction under the command of Dr. Riek was very weak, demoralized and incapable of defending its Headquarters, Nasir let alone taking offensive operations. Shortly after Nasir Declaration of August 28, 1991 was announced, Garang declared, “the Gang of two Drs,” as he prefers to call them [Dr. Riek & Dr. Lam] “must be given their last blow.” He went further, “we will break them down soon, and it is a matter of time before we bring the separatists to the vision of no-return.” After Garang’s statements were intercepted by SPLM/A-Nasir faction, Lt. Gen. Tiger Bol Koang declared that “the very existence of the SPLM/A-Nasir faction is in danger,” and demanded that “all soldiers stand firm and fight to last drop of blood.”

    Not surprisingly, the SPLA/M-Torit faction forces under the command of CDR. Rhino William Nyuony Bany launched and assault which almost routed instantly against the Anya-Nya II position along with few soldiers who appeared to be from SPLA-Nasir faction forces, burned down villages from Nuer Genesis homeland Bentiu [Liech/Unity State] including Leer, Dr. Riek Machar’s hometown. What CDR. William Nyuon and his forces didn’t realize at first was that in the second half of September, Lt. Gen. Lion Paulino Matip already redeploying many of his troops [Anya-Nya II] to prepare for “Operation Typhoon.” Instead of accepting their fate, the Anya-Nya II fought back with a ferocity that stunned the ill-prepared Torit faction. Most of Torit faction soldiers were ground-up by the Anya-Nya II forces. The Anya-Nya II forces under the command of Lt. Gen. Lion Paulino Matip did not only inflicted heavy losses on Torit faction, but pushed back CDR. William’s forces and penetrated deep inside BEG. This campaign against CDR. William’s forces forced them to retreat from the area just when Lt. Gen. Paulino Matip sent in more reinforcements.

    But the SPLA-Torit faction forces under the command of Lt. Gen. Kuol Manyang Juuk and Lt. Gen. Salva Kiir who were deployed from the direction of Kongoor and Pochalla respectively to wipe out Dr. Riek’s force as ordered and predicted by Garang, failed miserably from their suicide attempts, instead encircled and pursued like hunting dogs chase rabbits or deer by Dr. Riek’s forces under the command of Lt. Gen. Tiger Bol Koang and CDR. Tiger Koang Banypiny. As a result, Duk Padiet, Panyagor, Kongoor, Twic East, Mading Bor and all the surrounding garrisons and towns plus some part of BEG were burned down to ashes when the “Operation Typhoon,” was launched as two Heroes [Bol Koang & Koang Banypiny] call it. Garang underestimated the SPLM/A-Nasir faction military strength, but his commanders on the ground knew they were often paying a heavier price for them than expected in terms of casualties-and that, in many areas, the Torit faction advance wasn’t moving as swiftly as they had hoped. Garang’s commanders were preoccupied with the more immediate goal: ensuring that their troops would maintain their progress as they prepared to strike Nasir faction from all directions.

    Dr. Riek ordered his troops to withdraw after reaching Jumeza in greater Equatoria. The SPLA forces under Torit faction suffered tremendous losses and their mission failed miserably to bring “the Gang of two Drs alive or dead and trash the self-determination for South Sudan into garbage bin for good,” as Garang declared earlier before the war widespread like a wildfire beyond his imagination rather than vice-versa. A staggering pace that reflected the disarray of Garang’s subordinates encountered in most of the areas under attack. Torit, Kapoeta, Yei … were on the verge of cowardice and panic mongering evacuation until the common enemy overran almost all the liberated areas without any résistance from Garang’s SPLA/M-Torit faction. Can the unionists stand their ground alone without the separatists’ support?

    Many areas including major towns: Torit, Kapoeta, Mading Bor … were recaptured and/or surrendered to the common enemy as a result of split. The remaining few garrisons and towns under the control of Torit faction were on the verge of panic of evacuation either to Uganda or Kenya refugees camps as well. Garang was blinded by his burning conviction that Torit faction had to defeat and subjugates the Nasir faction, a movement that he contemptuously dismissed as “a Gang of two Drs.” Garang himself suffered a near psychological collapse as his faction looked as though it might implode. Garang’s forces should have been crushed/break down and/or chased up to Kenya/Uganda-Sudan borders if Dr. Riek was for military option rather than reconciliation through peaceful dialogues instead. Garang’s “New Sudan,” vision did not accomplish anything, but setbacks, chaos, death, subjugation by terror and epic conflicts. It was Garang’s ambition in war that compelled Nasir faction to take immediate retaliatory-military countermeasures. The burning questions are: What prompted Garang to be the first to ignite the fire which he could not extinguish? Did Garang’s SPLA/M have the political will and muscles to confront both the main enemy (NIF/NCP) and the separatists at the same time?

    There is no connection between the Nuer vs. Dinka and Separatists’ vs. Unionists. Of course, the armed civilians from subject tribes intervened during confrontations between the unionists and separatists in those dark days, and their intervention should not justify that the war was between the two big tribes rather than reasons suitable to their own interests. There have been ups and downs between these two big rival tribes since 1800s and it still functioning as we speak; Duk Padiet which was burned down to ash twice by Mighty Nuer Warriors/Jech-in-Bor at the presence of GoSS and its army (SSAF), proved beyond the reasonable doubt that Nuer vs. Dinka still exists.

    The Nuer ethnic group has never been thirsty for leadership/ power as some folks may believe especially the Dinka, as a matter of fact the movement [SPLA/M] from its first two years, it was mainly dominated by Nuer ethnic group. The first two battalions [104 & 105] or Jamus & Tumsah almost all the troops were from Nuer tribe and if in doubts, don’t hesitate to consult someone like Lt. Gen. Salva Kiir, Lt. Gen. James Gathoth Mai, Lt. Gen. Oyiey Deng Ajack, Mr. Governor, Taban Deng Gai, S.G. Pagan Amum and Mrs. Nyandeng Mabior, but just for your information.

    Many Anya-Nya II elements that deserted conditionally joined the SPLA/M within 1983. CDR. Rhino William Nyuon Bany who is believed to be the one to bring Garang to power is a Nuer by tribe. Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut and his group wanted another Dinkaman, Mr. Kuot Atem to be the leader of the movement, but Garang and his group did not only rejected the offer, instead wanted Garang to lead the movement after the Dergue regime of Mr. Mengistu Hailemariam secured the “ New Sudan,” vision for them. The blessing day for Southern Sudanese, the August 28, 1991 of Nasir Declaration was not a mean to hijack the leadership from Dinka as many people may assume, but a strategic move to force Garang and his supporters to make a U-turn from “United Socialist Secular/New Sudan,” vision to self-determination for the people of Southern Sudan. Therefore, base on all the above mentioned factors, it demonstrated that, the Nuer as a community has never been hungry for leadership/power and this must refute Dinkas’ claims.

    And of course, as a result of Nasir move, Garang divorced and abandoned the alliance, called SPLA/M 1st National Convent at Chukudum in 1994 and the self-determination for South Sudan was the first agenda in that Convention. The movement changed from its former name SPLA/M as it was well-known back then to SPLM/A. Garang put self-determination for South Sudan to be the first agenda/priority whenever there is a peace talks with Khartoum government and Garang himself eventually signed for it, the self-determination for people of Southern Sudan in CPA. Garang gave up his “New Sudan,” vision, a vision he always refers as a “vision of no-return.” This raised too many unsettling questions from his allies especially the inner circle of NDA, Nuba Mountains and Blue Nile who were oblivious and betrayed at the same time by his self-observed “New Sudan,” vision until they realized that Garang shamelessly made a U-turn which left them in illusion.

    The right of self-determination has been eloquently championed and articulated nationally and internationally by the Anya Nya II movement since 1975 until SPLM/A-Nasir faction joined those Separatists thereafter the Nasir Declaration on August 28, 1991 was declared. It has a democratic and an inalienable right to all people as well as conflict resolutions. The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) an umbrella of the traditional Northern political parties, the Marxist-Leninist SPLA/M and the National Islamic Fundamentalist (NIF/NCP) regime in Khartoum were all asthmatic to concept of the right of self-determination. Thus, no matter what the so called traditional parties do, they do not have the trust and confident of the South for their deception and unilateral abrogation and dishonored of many agreements. The SPLA/M alliance with NDA was a repeat of the past, which SPLA/M should have not fail to understand its future implications for the South once the so called NDA gets the grip of the wheels of power in Khartoum.

    Then, why remain separated if the former Marxist-Leninist SPLA/M led by Garang relinquished its “New Sudan,” vision after it was forced by Nasir move to adopt the only sole objective of the movement, the self-determination for South Sudan? Leadership has never been a big concern from separatists’ political point of view since 1975 as some people shamelessly may believe, but directions, objectives, principles and human rights for/in the movement. The SPLA/M division between the separatists and unionists should not justify the merits to classify the SPLM/A and/or GoSS as a Dinka movement/gov’t just simply because the two leaders, Col. Dr. Garang and Lt. Gen. Salva Kiir hail from that ethnic group. If this is the case, as some folks claim it, Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut, Col. Dr. Garang plus many others should have not joined the Anya-Nya I [SSLM/A] under the leadership of Joseph Lagu, but viewed it as Madi’s movement.

    Kim Deng is a military Historian, SSAF officer from Headquarters, Bilpam and he can be reached at kdeng75@yahoo.

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  • 29 August 2011 17:58, by Kim Deng

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    By Gatkuoth Lam

    July 3, 2008 — Members of the Dinka Bor community around the world have turned the 28th August a day on which they propagate every year claiming that thousands of their community members were massacred in Bor town in 1991 by the then forces of the SPLM/A-Nasir faction led by Dr. Riek Machar Teny-Dhurgon.

    Dr. Machar defected with Commander Dr. Lam Akol Ajawin and Commander Gordon Koang Chol with their forces in a historic move for better change from the old SPLM/A led by the late, Dr. John Garang de Mabior, which Garang then re-named ‘SPLM/A-Torit faction’ after the split. The move was declared on 28th August 1991 in Nasir town in Upper Nile region. The reasons for the split were clearly articulated by the then SPLM/A-Nasir faction leadership and were understood and still being understood by the concerned people of Southern Sudan in particular and the international community at large. Before the split, the SPLM/A had no clear objective for which the people of Southern Sudan fought and lost two million souls. There were no proper structures put in place for clear responsibilities, which would also guarantee collective decision making in strategizing for the Movement’s programs and executing its war against the Khartoum government. There were also gross violations of human rights by late Garang’s leadership. Dr. Garang was using the Movement as his own property. I will shed some light on these issues in the next paragraphs below.

    Since the inception of the SPLM/A in 1983 until 1991, if you asked any SPLA officer what he was fighting for, he would not provide a clear answer simply because he did not know what he was fighting for – or simply say he was not enlightened on the cause of war. I remember when I was in Itang in 1986 and asked a friend of mine who was also a SPLA officer what he was fighting for, he just replied “I don’t know but John Garang knows”. And he continued to say “to me I think we are fighting to liberate South Sudan territory from the Arabs who dominate us.” Even those who thought to be SPLM politicians were not sure about the objective for which the war was launched. And to inquire that from Garang himself for possible correction was deadly.. Tens of thousands of SPLA soldiers lost their lives in battles while not clear about the cause they died for and the destiny they wanted to reach and achieve. This was the pre-1991 situation in the Movement.

    There were no proper structures established in the Movement although there were sufficient educated SPLM cadres who could run every necessary structure if established at the time for better strategies on policies and successful execution of the war. Dr. Garang instead established only what he called ‘Political Military High Command’ in 1980s in which he installed semi-literate personalities on most senior positions in that single structure. Dr. Machar was a member of that structure, but intentionally put in the bottom of the list by Garang. The Political Military High Command was mandated by Garang himself to look into matters related to both political and military. The group’s most powerful personalities lacked any political experience and could not even see what was wrong with the objective of the Movement, let alone the importance of establishing a separate structure for SPLM. The way they executed the war was not also professional and this might explain why they could not capture a single major city among the three capital cities of the three regions in the South for twenty one years until the CPA found a way out in early 2005. Worst of all, members of the Political Military High Command could not meet to decide what to do next as a collective body. Many of them did not even know their faces, they just heard of each other’s existence somewhere. Those who were fighting in the battle fields like Dr. Riek Machar in the early years of SPLM/A were depending on orders from Dr. John Garang without their views being put into consideration on how to effectively wage the war.

    Late Garang also conspired against his colleagues he perceived to be a threat to his leadership because of they were highly educated. He used to expose PhD holders to battle fields instead of utilizing them to formulate policies for the SPLM as a political wing.

    He ordered Dr. Peter Adwok Nyaba to attack the government forces with child-soldiers in Jokou town. Dr. Nyaba lost one of his legs in the operation and came back with few survivors of his child-soldiers.

    Garang also ordered Dr. Riek Machar Teny, another PhD holder in Strategic Planning in Industry to attack Malut in Upper Nile, which Dr. Machar captured in mid 1980s. After capturing Malut, Garang ordered Machar again to move up to Mayom in Unity state to capture it where the present President of the Republic, Omer Hassen el Beshir was the commanding officer in Mayom before he became the President in 1989. Dr. Machar’s forces got into very fierce battles with Beshir’s forces. His forces wounded Beshir in his leg, but failed to capture the town because they could not get reinforcement.

    Late Garang also ordered Dr. Lam Akol Ajawin, another PhD holder in Petroleum Engineering to move to eastern Upper Nile to command SPLA forces in the area in 1980s.

    Gross human rights violations were committed by late Garang’s forces against a number of ethnic groups in Southern Sudan, which included massacres. One of the worst massacres committed by Garang was the war he launched against the Gaajaak sub-clan of Jikany Nuer in 1985. The war was launched against the whole sub-clan simply because of an argument over fish between a villager of the sub-clan and a SPLA soldier. The villager went fishing with some of his colleagues, caught a fish and was ready to take it home. Some SPLA soldiers came to the river, and as it was common behavior among the forces at that time, wanted to take the fish by force from the villager. The villager resisted and was then shot dead by one of the SPLA soldiers. Villagers from a nearby village heard the gun shot, rushed to the scene and found their colleague dead. They immediately retaliated by killing a number of SPLA soldiers on the spot. The remnants of those soldiers ran for their lives back to Bilpam, which was the then SPLA General Headquarters on the Ethiopian border. They reported the incident at the Headquarters. The SPLM/A leadership was furious and decided that the whole sub-clan be disciplined by wiping them out of their villages. This was how the war against the Gaajaak sub-clan of the Jikany-Nuer started in 1985, resulting in untold massacres of human beings and their cattle.

    Many people who used to hear late Garang’s ambitious comments on the territory occupied by the Gaajaak sub-clan before the war knew that the fish incident was used as a pretext for war against the Gaajaak. Dr. Garang used to tell his Bor intellectuals that the territory occupied by Gaajaak was in fact a Dinka Bor land. He used to explain that the Dinka Bor community was displaced from the land during the Nuer expansion from Bentiu in Western Upper Nile hundreds of years ago. Perhaps by wiping out the Gaajaak from the territory, he would have encouraged the Dinka Bor community to resettle in the land so that they border Ethiopia and resolve their current status of being landlocked in the Bor’s tiny territory in Jonglei. He was not happy also with the way the Nuer inhabit a huge territory without being isolated by other tribes – their land which extends from Western Upper Nile bordering the Nuba Mountains in Southern Kordofan in the north across the River Nile in Upper Nile region up to the Ethiopian border in the East.

    Dr. Garang dispatched both late Kerubino Kwanyin Bol and late William Nyuon Bany to personally command that war against the Gaajaak sub-clan. For those of you with short-lived memories, late Commander Kerubino Kwanyin Bol was the Deputy Chairman of the SPLM and Deputy Commander-in-Chief of the SPLA forces. He was number two to Dr. John Garang. Late Commander William Nyuon Bany was the Chief of Staff of the SPLA forces; the post previously occupied by Comrade Salva Kiir Mayardit and currently occupied by Comrade Lt.. General Oyai Deng Ajak. You can imagine how Garang was determined to entirely wipe out the Gaajaak by letting loose those powerful military commanders to massacre the unarmed Gaajaak sub-clan. Both Kerubino and William went to the battle fields to personally command the fighting. The war resulted into untold losses where thousands of people were killed, several villages completely wiped out and burnt to ashes. However, the SPLA won some of the battles but lost the war against the community! Dr. Garang failed to get the territory back to Dinka Bor community. In that war against a sub-clan, the SPLM/A lost a highly educated son of Southern Sudan, Dr. Francis Ngor, a PhD holder after late Garang ordered him to command a force against the community and his forces were annihilated. He was captured and killed by the villagers on spot.

    The two parties finally decided to stop the fighting and came back to the peace table and forgave themselves for the sin. That crime against humanity committed by Dr. Garang against the Gaajaak community might have been forgiven but not forgotten. Of course the Gaajaak community may not file criminal cases in The Hague against those three most powerful leaders of the SPLM/A at the time because they are no longer with us on this earth. I personally ask God to forgive late Garang and his colleagues.

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  • 29 August 2011 18:02, by Kim Deng

    Similar atrocities were also committed against other ethnic groups in the South such as the Toposa, Murle, etc. by Dr. Garang’s forces in the 1990s. All are documented!

    The claim by the Dinka Bor community intellectuals that the 1991 SPLM/A split resulted in the massacre of Bor by the then Nasir faction leadership was and still a propaganda campaign against personalities like Dr. Riek Machar. Of course, there was a fight over Bor town which actually resulted in the lost of, maybe, thousands of lives. This cannot be disputed! But who can the Bor personally hold responsible? The fight over the control of Bor town to my best knowledge was not ordered by the leader of the then SPLM/A-Nasir faction, Dr. Riek Machar Teny-Dhurgon. These were some of Dr. Machar’s military officers who felt very angry after hearing the news that Garang’s forces were killing in cold blood Nuer officers who were on Garang’s side in Equatoria region. Dr. Garang’s forces, particularly from the Dinka ethnic group decided to kill in cold blood every Nuer officer on their side in Torit town simply because a Nuer leader has challenged Garang’s leadership in Nasir town.

    These angry Nuer military officers from the SPLM/A Nasir faction mobilized some of the Nuer armed civilians who are neighbours to Dinka Bor and attacked Bor town. They had fierce battle with Garang’s forces stationed in the town. After several hours of fighting they overran the town, which resulted in lost of hundreds or thousands of lives and massive displacement of Dinka Bor population up to Equatoria region. I personally feel sad about the incident. But the Dinka Bor community members should not use it as a propaganda campaign against Dr. Riek Machar for reasons best known to them. This is a pointed finger at the wrong person. They should learn the truth about the incident, what provoked it and who organized the attacks.

    The same was true with the attack on Malakal town in 1993 by the armed Nuer civilians organized by the late Wurnyang Garkek. Late Wurnyang claimed to have been possessed by God’s spirits and that the spirits directed him to help liberate the South. He successfully organized a force that was popularly known as the ‘White Army’ from the Nuer civil population and ordered them to capture the capital of Upper Nile region, Malakal. They attacked the town and captured about seventy-five percent (75%) of the town. The Sudan government forces held certain positions in the outskirts of the town. Because Wurnyang’s armed civilians were not trained soldiers and had no supplies of ammunitions, when they realized that they were running out of ammunitions, they started shouting in the town calling on their individual colleagues to supply them with some bullets if they had plenty. The government soldiers came to realize that these were just armed civilians and that they had run out of ammunitions. The government forces gave them a final full thrust and chased them out of the town. The town again fell under the full control of the government’s forces. The government forces first thought it was Dr. Riek Machar’s forces attacking the town, but this turned out to be somebody else organizing and ordering the attack on Malakal town.

    To me, as a person who has been in the SPLM/A since its inception in 1983, I see the 28th August 1991, split as one of the most blessings the people of Southern Sudan have received from their creator. Of course, the split resulted into setbacks when it came to military activities against the Khartoum government, but has revolutionized the SPLM system and set a clear objective for the satisfaction and achievement of the aspirations of the people of Southern Sudan.

    The 28th August 1991 Nasir Declaration, which was code-named ‘The Creeping Revolution’ under the then leadership of Dr. Riek Machar Teny-Dhurgon, called for Self-determination for the people of Southern Sudan to determine their political destiny. This is to be determined in a referendum on vote for separation or unity and to be supervised internationally in Southern Sudan. This patriotic call by the people of Southern Sudan was resisted by late Dr. Garang until the year 2002. Garang was instead calling for a United New Socialist Sudan in the 1980s (a vision he copied from Ethiopian President Mengistu Haile Mariam’s New Socialist Ethiopia). After Mengistu was overthrown, he then changed the vision in 1990s to a United Secular Sudan (or New Sudan as he called it). The viability of this big dream or vision was in question as many people saw and still see it as just a beautiful dream but unrealistic in its achievement and was meant to confuse the cause of the people of Southern Sudan given the complexity of the problems in the Sudan and their deep rooted origins. Subsequent American administrations in Washington DC dream of a ‘New World Order’ which they now find unrealistic to achieve for the whole world. Every body can dream beautifully, but making the dream come true is the question. We need to be realistic in our visions!

    The 28th August 1991 Declaration also called for democratization of the Movement by putting its structures in place, particularly the arm of the SPLM which was treated subordinate and incorporated into the arm of the SPLA by Garang’s leadership. This explains why in the old days of the Movement, Dr. Garang put the SPLA first by calling the Movement the ‘SPLA/SPLM’ instead of the ‘SPLM/SPLA’. This was corrected after the 1991 historic move for better change. The Movement was also lacking its legal institutions. Garang was every thing! After being challenged reasonably by the Nasir faction leadership on these issues, he reacted by organizing and calling for the First SPLM National Convention in Chukudum in 1995. Before the Convention, and in the months leading to the time the Convention was called for, Garang felt much pressure on his leadership from within his faction and began to understand the need to establish structures for the Movement. There were voices who called for change on how the Movement was being run by one man.

    For fear that many more intellectuals and military Commanders would continue to defect to Dr. Riek Machar’s faction, Dr. Garang found himself toothless and could not resort to his old ways of either murdering his political and military opponents from within in cold blood or silencing them in prisons without trial. His leadership survival at that time after the split significantly depended on how Dr. Machar would handle his coup against him. If Dr. Machar were to choose to overthrow Garang militarily as the last resort by attacking his positions in Equatoria region, Garang’s leadership would have come to pass in those years. Machar instead chose to engage Garang in dialogue to resolve the issues that caused the split and would only fight in self-defense if Garang attacked his positions. This helped Garang to re-organize his forces that were in the state of panic. Luckily and by chance, Garang used Machar’s peace talks with the Khartoum government to accuse him of collaborating with Khartoum. This also helped him to regain support from those in the region and Western world who wanted the war to continue in Southern Sudan. Dr. Machar’s position not to escalate fighting by removing Garang using military might in Equatoria region, where he shifted his bases and fighting force, resulted in sharp disagreements with his colleagues which also resulted in further splits within the Nasir faction. Can you see this dilemma which was not completely taken note of by Garang’s faction?

    The 28th August 1991 popular Declaration prompted its leadership to strategize on how the liberation struggle could be achieved. The leadership chose the path of peace as the way forward. They engaged themselves in a series of peace talks with the present government in Khartoum in Abuja One and Abuja Two and subsequently signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement in 1997. Dr. Riek Machar incorporated other factions which also defected from late Dr. Garang’s faction and became their overall leader. These factions included the Bahr El-Ghazal Group (BGG), led by late Kerubino Kwanyin Bol, the Bor Group (BG), led by late Arok Thon Arok, the Equatoria Defense Forces (EDF), led by Dr. Theophillus Ochang Lotti, and some other groups. Dr. Machar signed the famous Khartoum Peace Agreement (KPA) on behalf of all the factions that joined his Movement, the South Sudan Independence Movement (SSIM) with its military wing, the South Sudan Defense Forces (SSDF). For the first time in the history of the Sudan, the Khartoum government conceded the right of self-determination for the people of Southern Sudan in the Agreement. This was also enshrined in the National Constitution of the Sudan in 1998, which clearly articulated that this right would be exercised in an internationally supervised referendum after four years from 1997. The referendum was to be exercised in Southern Sudan in the year 2001 about seven years ago.

    Dr. Garang at the time vowed that he would not sign any agreement with the Khartoum government under President Omer Hassen El – Beshir. He used to say that the Khartoum government was too deformed to be reformed and that he wanted it removed by military force. He called the Khartoum Peace Agreement a sell out despite the inclusion of the clause ‘self-determination’ in it plus many more achievements including Southern Sudan retaining a separate army. The significant thing I personally feel was missing in the Khartoum Peace Agreement was the involvement of the international community, which distanced itself from the Khartoum Peace Agreement on a number of interests that I don’t want to write about here. The Khartoum Peace Agreement, like any other agreements signed in Sudan, was violated by the Khartoum government in the year 2000. Dr. Machar, after championing self-determination in the Agreement, decided to resort to other strategies back in the bush to bring late Dr. John Garang to the developing peace process and indirectly revive the Khartoum Peace Agreement in a comprehensive form based on self-determination!

    On 6th January 2002, the two factions of Dr. Machar and Dr. Garang merged in Nairobi. This time with bold declaration that the two groups agreed to resolve the issues that led to the split within the SPLM/A on 28th August 1991.. The right of self-determination for the people of Southern Sudan as called for in the Nasir Declaration was officially accepted and became the official objective of the Movement to determine the future political status of the people of Southern Sudan. Democratization of the Movement and respect for human rights were re-affirmed because Garang had already adopted these principles after the 1991 split and before the merger in 2002. But the Merger Agreement recognized that more work needed to be done on these principles. The Nairobi Merger Agreement also called for a Second SPLM National Convention to be held within three months to elect the leadership of the ‘new’ SPLM. Dr. Garang delayed the convening of the Convention indefinitely for fear of being defeated in the election by Dr. Machar or any other candidate. The Merger Agreement also called for serious revival and resumption of peace talks with the Khartoum government.

    As a result of the Merger Agreement between the two leaders with renewed spirit and quest for peace, just after six months from the merger, the first protocol of the CPA on self-determination for the people of Southern Sudan was signed in Machakos, Kenya in July 2002. Commander Salva Kiir Mayardit, the then Deputy Chairman for Military Affairs signed the Protocol on behalf of the SPLM/A. The road to peace became irreversible!

    On 9th January 2005, the SPLM/A and the National Congress Party-led government signed the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). Dr. Garang signed on behalf of the Movement while the then First Vice President of the Sudan, Ali Osman Mohamed Taha, signed on behalf of the Sudan government. If you read the CPA in comparison with the Khartoum Peace Agreement, you would be convinced that the CPA is not more than a revised text of the Khartoum Peace Agreement with the exception of the international support and the United Nations Peace Keeping Forces in the South. However, the effectiveness or not of the international support and the UN Peacekeeping forces in Southern Sudan is another thing one may evaluate.

    The clear message I want to send to those who might have been blinded by tribal sentiments and cheap propaganda against leaders who have greatly contributed or actually revolutionized our way forward as the people of Southern Sudan is that they should get realistic and honour these great leaders like Dr. Machar with utmost respect.. 28th August 1991 Declaration should not be used for negative propaganda, but instead be remembered as a blessed birth day on which a clear path for the liberation and freedom of the people of Southern Sudan was set. The road to our freedom is still long and painful! We need to get united as one people with one objective that will lead us to our desired destiny. Propagating on the so-called Dinka Bor massacres with fabricated negative stories attributed to innocent and great leaders like Dr. Riek Machar will not help the cause the Dinka Bor want to achieve in Southern Sudan or in a united Sudan.

    The author is based in southern Sudan.

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    • 29 August 2011 18:18, by dengtaath

      29 August 18:04, by dengtaath
      Hahahahahahah, ahahahahah,hahahahah, laughing to Dinka Dominated his ass and Cadaai and Abyie Soil, and all of you the Bor community who do not like this apology from Dr.Riek machar.Riek Machar would first Apologised to his loyalists who died in support of Democracy, human rights and need for self determination instead of the Bor who died because of John Garang ignorance.
      You are lucky that John Garang had died soon after peace, Bor could died more than the death of 1992.
      Nuer they died in mass in so many locations, Gajaak massacre was swallowed, many death committed by Garang’s forces in central Nuer was swallowed, in Bentiu was swallowed, all Nuer military officers were eliminated on the side of equateria after split between Garang and Riek was also swallowed and today Riek Machar started apologising to you.
      Please Dinka Bor, go to hell or take this apology, those who said they would better go back than going forward, please go back deeper and do what you want to do if this apology does not satisfied your fucken Dinka Bor or Baydit.
      Shame on Garang and shame on all Dinka Bor, a self centered community that do not see other people as human.
      You will live in curse in South Sudan if you don’t change, we all in South Sudan understood your ego centric behaviour, a rigid community who will never change in South Sudan. We all know that you are waiting for opportunity to repeat your terror upon others but will take you time even, will uproot you completely even in Jonglei it will be a matter of days or years to vote you out of the power. kuol Mangooth is playing with fire now, will kik his ass out soon tell him clearly. Go to hell now or accept the apology

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      • 29 August 2011 18:24, by Cadaai ?o?

        Dengtaath

        Historian and Identity Advocacy View.

        You think you are educated, I don’t think so because you don’t know the history or identity of people.

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        • 30 August 2011 01:59, by pabaak

          Riek may give tons of apologizes to the people of south Sudan to be forgiven and its up to people who have been affected to for give him or not, but it would be hard to get forgiveness from people of Nubian mountains, and blue Nile because they could be enjoying the same peace now with south Sudan if not of Riek’s rebellion. the goal of new Sudan could have been achieved at this time.

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        • 30 August 2011 08:51, by dengtaath

          Candaai?O?
          What history? first of all stop composing lengths essays, we don’t have time to read your psychotic paranoid. About Dr.Machar apology, Real people do apologise to seek the way forward for the nation, those who refute to Dr.Machar apology by rejecting it, people like you and Dinka dominated his ass, are completely mentally sick and all will go to hell my man undstand? Dinka did died as people in Dorong, Thiajak, Luel and others places such as Baliet (atrocities committed by George Thor, central Nuer and the likes had happened. Each death brough sorrow to our communities, no one single death is small or less important. take it or leave it, what history are you talking about? Am not telling you that am educated or not an educated, but judge your understanding on issues facing our communities, will the apologies reconcile the people or will your mental insistant of hatred solve the differences we have? My friend, you are the most un educated man on the earth if you fail to understand the best behind that apology. My conclusion is that go to hell with your mental illness.

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  • 29 August 2011 18:18, by Cadaai ?o?

    “Call it a clan, call it a network, call it a tribe, call it a family: Whatever you call it, whoever you are, you need one.” By Jane Howard
    “The individual has always had to struggle to keep from being overwhelmed by the tribe. If you try it, you will be lonely often, and sometimes frightened. But no price is too high to pay for the privilege of own yourself.” By Friedrich Nietzsche

    “W? ce deer ku na cï w? deer në yicda ?icku, ayukku kuany cök e lö? tue?, kuj? k??kë b? kuanycök.” By J. Thon de Garang

    The Dinka Twic East is one of the Dinka (Jieng) communities located in Jonglei State (formerly well-known as the Upper Nile region before Sudan separated into two nations of North & South Sudan) of the Republic of South Sudan. The genesis of Twic East Community is from Twic East County located between Bor and Duk Counties. Dinka Jieng Tuic East people are pretty known by their common characters like calm, kind, honesty, daring wisdom, suitable compassion, hospitality, unselfish, non-greedy, non-violent people any levels of life aspects, and leadership, intelligent and other elements of their characters.
    “…Contrary to popular conception Dr. John Garang is from Dinka Twic-east, NOT Bor. The Twic Dinka is a separate county from Dinka Bor, and speaks a different dialect, with ...”
    Source: www.Sudantribune.com/
    According to my personal analysis: here are some of the problems we have in South Sudan when it comes to dealing with communities, bumas, lineages, clans, Payams, Counties, regions and tribal naming issues
    (a) In former times, whoever was a leader in South Sudan’s government would use nepotism to name all the communities, clans and tribes through their own lineages’ names. This has become an issue today; because people are starting to acknowledge the mess that has been made by biased people during their time of leadership. So now most of the lineages, communities, clans and tribes are trying to fix this issue of naming. Yet there is still a long way to go for them to reach the truth, because of the extremists who are in contrast maintaining the mindset of the old eras. They are ignoring the facts, and even some people are not abiding by the truth of the matter. These extremists are always trying to support their own related folks that have violated the ethics of the social leadership positions they were holding. Even though they know the facts, still their stubborn hearts of division through nepotism, communalism, clannishness and tribalism do allow them to hold on to the negative and baseless truth. They just want to promote their own communities, clans and tribes names as proud symbols of their domination over any social organized groups, in my studied opinion. These extremists use propaganda as their way to deny the legitimacy of the truth, and they just hide behind their dishonesty.
    (b) Educators in those former days were the ones who put those controversial names on the official documents, even though they were aware that it was the wrong thing for them to do. Still they were possessed by the evils of nepotism, clannishness and tribalism. I would call it a mistake made by most of the South Sudanese scholars; to me, this issue was not the Northerners’ problem or propaganda against the Southerners. Northerners were just documenting what was given to them by our Southern intellectuals who were representing us in Khartoum’s government. Personally, I do not point my finger toward the Northerners for the mess. I do blame our Southerners, who were our intellectuals and leaders at that particular period of time. They dishonestly violated the ethics of their leadership posts and their professional class, which was given to them by the people whom they were representing in government. Furthermore, their misuse of honor and names recognition many years ago is right now becoming a critical problem that needs to be addressed it, so that the controversies of naming of places, regions. Tribes or sub-tribes are not allowed to become a disaster against peace and unity. To me, it is easy to solve it if everybody is really open to the truth. And if they don’t accept the truth, it becomes a complicated issue rooted in stereotyping and propaganda.
    (c) Selfishness and tribal bias were the most driving forces behind this controversial issue of naming within most of the South Sudanese’ communities, clans and tribes. The mistake was done by our own Southerners who were leaders or scholars in private sectors in Sudan’s government. These individuals’ ideology of division or bias was behind their leadership concentration when it came to their own interests of close lineages, communities, clans, tribes, etc. That is what I believe was a primary source behind their leadership objectives, where an individual had the power to promote his own section’s name as the combination name for other lineages, communities, clans, tribes, Payams (Divisions), Counties (Districts), even States if I am not mistaken.
    (d) Popularity did play a significant role then too; especially for personalities who were well known during all those past days, because their popularity was a very basic accelerator to this issue. Now it becomes harder to deal with because of those extremists who are not always abiding by the truth, even when they actually knew that they were totally wrong in supporting this controversial issue of names. Back then, those people didn’t respect the integrity of the offices they occupied. So my message to those extremists is this: please, you should honor the truth for the well being of our people’s integrity, peace, liberty, prosperity and harmony. Be a person with class by considering our late father of freedom, John Garang. His mission before he died was to straighten out these zigzag roads, and now it is time for us who are alive to make those roads straighter for our freedom. Furthermore, my mission here which God (Nhialic) has given me is to tackle the truth. And I hope those who are blessed with the vision of advocating for truth are going to join me for the sake of our people’s peace, freedom, liberty, prosperity and unity.
    In conclusion, my final piece of advice to those who want to be catalysts behind this messy situation of names among most of our lineages, communities, clans, and tribes in Southern Sudan: Please! Please! Please! Take a deep breath and think beyond the depth of your propaganda of divisions, nepotism, clannishness, tribalism and so forth. Because now it is time we (South Sudanese) need to be civilized rather than going back to the old days’ ideology of truth twisting. We just need to strengthen our unity in South Sudan; that is what I think should be a legitimate pathway to freedom, liberty, peace, unity, harmony, prosperity, etc. Again, our journey of strengthening things out was started by our late Dr. John Garang. And we shouldn’t be going back, in my opinion, when it comes to those controversial ideologists who are not unsuitable for our unity in South Sudan. I don’t think we can afford the resumption of that road, ladies and gentlemen. We just need to correct all those issues that are capable of undermining our harmony and our peaceful Bumas, Payams, Counties, states and nation. Let us all join our hands and solve this issue through a peaceful way, abiding by truth and honoring the facts, as a group or individually. Extreme pretense will not lead us into a successful society, nor will an evil heart of divisions, bias, nepotism, communalism, clannishness and tribalism lead us into a better society. The only oil for the engine of our society’s future development and prosperity is to always rely on the acceptance of truth.
    N/B: People should know that, historically; Dinka tribe cultural is based under clannish systems of governance. There is no what so call Dinka Bor that exists as a combination name for other tribes like Twic (Tuic) East, Nyarweng, and Hol. Bor is an independent tribe alone; it is factually 100 percent truth. Dinka or Jieng Twic /Tuic East tribe is an independent alone; it is factually 100 percent truth. The same thing with Nyarweng and Hol tribes, according to history, Dinka [Monyjang/Jieng] is the only name combining all the sub-tribes of the Dinka or Jieng tribe of South Sudan. (Justice Trust God [Nhialic]).
    Furthermore, Twic (Tuic) East and Bor are having a big gap when it comes to their languages’ accents and words too, characteristics; especially when you consider the similarities among Dinka or Jieng (Monyjang) sub-tribes. Dinka (Jieng) Twic (Tuic) tribe language is related to Dinka Padang (Padeng) language, Dinka Abiliang language, Dinka Ruweng language, Dinka Rek and the other Twic (Tuic) in West Nile, etc.
    Please, for you those who claimed the name Bor as our (Twic/Tuic East) name too. Forget about it, and don’t allow our people history disappear in a wrong way. If you don’t have any idea concerning the background of our people’s history, please don’t rush into support of anything you don’t have a clue. You might put yourself into a tricky way of politics or ideology that would disadvantage you and your own people. Before doing so, please seeks advice from our people back home who are specialist in history of our people.
    For me not going overboard, this is time to fix this issue, because our generation purpose is to setup good foundation for future generations. Example would be Our Late and our own Son and honorable Dr. John Garang had started the strengthening of Histories/things. Right now, is the appropriate time to deal with this issue without further do. Otherwise, the disappearing of our history is going to rest on our shoulders that are still alive at this point. And who wants to be blame for our history mess later down the line of many generations that are going to come after our lifetime? Plus, who wants to let that happen in his/her own watch? You individually would be the judge about your identity, deal with it or not deal with it. It is your choice individually.
    Suggested name for Dinka (Jieng) tribes/Counties in Jonglei State is ‘Southeastern Dinka (JiengJang) Counties.’ Again, those tribes or Counties are consists of Bor, Twic (Tuic) East and Duk (Dukkeen) (Nyarweng, Hol and others.)
    But where the name Dinka JiengJang (JiengJang) came from? Well, that is a very interesting question. The word “Jieng” means the people of the Jonglei state who are Dinka or Jieng by tribe, and also it is another name for the whole Dinka tribe that occupies the country of the South Sudan. What about the suffix “Jang”? The suffix “Jang” was derived from the language of Dinka other names, which in two full terminologies they call “Thuongjang /Thongmonyjang”. So either of the two terminologies is where the suffix “Jang” came from. Then, if you combine those two words, you would be able to come up with the name “JiengJang“. By the way, the Dinka language is also called Thongjieng. Sometimes it depends on what regions of Dinka land in South Sudan where a person is dwelling. Because in most of the Dinka’s sub-tribes, sections, clans, lineages, etc., live far away from one another for quite sometimes has allowed them to create their own accents and pronunciations; also it has created some deterioration in their languages original uniqueness. In addition, the word “Jang” in Dinka or Jieng Twic/Tuic East language it means “many or people (many people)”. I think you now know the meaning or the root of the Southeastern Dinka or Jieng (Jieng de Jonglei State of South Sudan, according to some people. To summarize, the Dinka JiengJang (Southeastern Dinka/Jieng) is the name of tribes of Dinka people who are dwelling in Jonglei State, South Sudan. Again, those sub-tribes of Dinka or Jieng are consisting of Bor, Twic (Tuic) East, Duk (Dukkeen) (Nyarweng, Hol, etc.). Also, you can call those tribes by their Counties’ names as Southeastern Dinka or Jieng Counties of Jonglei State (Jieng de Jonglei State as others put it). By their names, they are: Bor County, Twic East County and Duk County of Jonglei State, South Sudan. Furthermore, anyway I do call them as JiengJang Counties or JiengJang tribes of Jonglei State.

    Source: JiengJang Blog

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  • 29 August 2011 21:15, by Dinkawarrior

    Mr. Cadaai! Or Ca-yin?
    I know you personally by names and by sub tribe even your dhin section and where you living! Don’t forget what some of you did to our Bor community at the time of struggling, particularly to Athoc, Gok, Hol, Nyarweng, and Kongor.

    There is still burning fire in our hearts but you keep pushing it harder to make it nastiest!
    Please stop your stupidly or otherwise I will reveal your names to the publics and you will be held accountable for your misbehavior!
    And this will affect you seriously and the majority of your damn ngoth? If you lost your mind then try it again! I am damn serious about it!
    There is nothing call Dinka Twic East in the Eastern Bank of Nile, we only have Dinka Bor which including Athoc, Dukeen, Gok, and Twic.

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    • 29 August 2011 22:19, by Cadaai ?o?

      Please leave Caadai alone, I know you as well through your IP address you use. Also your are from Dinka Bor of the Mading Ngeth Agok who wants to try to steal Dinka Twi identity and history. But as I know Dinka Twi East people intgerity, honesty and stands for truth, Dinka Twi people are going to prevail over your deceiving or attempts to imposed your wrong identity to Dinka Twi East people. You guys are just destroying your images among South Sudanese communities’ eyes. Dinka Twi East are well known and respected community. Because of their adorable behaviors and their respected characters for humanity attributes well being.

      Dinka Twi East people, don’t worry we are all behind you guys and sooner than later your identity and history will prevail as truth always don’t disappear easily.

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    • 30 August 2011 06:34, by Dakkin

      dinkawarrior,

      Come up with your history proofing that Twic is Bor. To me, you are all dinkas but one of you is honest another is a devil and is you.

      For me historically, I applaud someone who refused to be yorked.

      Dinka bor is half cast dinka and shameles beggars.

      Can you cal aliab, bor? Can you cal agar as atuot? Or malwal as apuk?

      Gajiok as gajaak?
      Lou of akobo(muor) as Lou of uRor(gon)? And so and so. No chance

      On the ground, cadaai is very right.

      Historically, am very sory Mading Bor cunning man. Twic will never fit into you.

      Because you are a smart thief drop Bor and call yorself Twic and behave likewise

      Otherwise good informations cadaai for those who don’t know.
      You are very learned, there is alot of truth in your work

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      • 30 August 2011 20:27, by Cadaai ?o?

        Dakkin

        Historian and Identity Advocacy View:

        Thank you very Much Dakkin, I really appreciate your stand for truth.

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  • 29 August 2011 23:06, by Cadaai ?o?

    Historian and Identity Advocacy View:

    I am sorry I forget to give credits to Sources of the post:

    Here they are:

    http://garangmabior.wordpress.com

    http://dinkatwiceast.wordpress.com

    http://jiengjang.wordpress.com

    wikipedia and other sources.

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  • 30 August 2011 06:46, by monyjang chol

    BRAVO CHADAAI? O?
    I aplaud yu brotther cadaai o, ’yin ye thon e thoon twic’ keep it up.
    to dinka bor
    IT DOESNT MATTER WETHER THERE IS TWIC WEST OR NOT LIKE THERE IS EASTERN JIKANY IN UPPER NILE AND JIKANY IN UNITY STATE.I NOE TRUTH HURT ALOTS BUT YU DINKA BOR AKA NYAMNYAM WILL NEVER BE FORGIVEN BY DINKA TWIC EAST. YU USE DINKA TWIC EAST AS SHIELDS AGAINST LOU NUER BUT WITHOUT DINKA TWIC EAST LOU NUER WOULD HAVE ENSLAVE YU IN 18TH CENTURY. DINKA TWIC EAST AND DINKA DUK( NYARWENG AND HOL) RESIST NUER MALITIAS AND RIEK MACHAR FORCES FOR TWO MONTH BUT COWARD FROM DINKA BOR RAN TO LAKE STATE ACROSS THE NILE WHILE FEW OF THEM REMAINED BEHIND AND INSULT THE DISPLACE CIVILAIN FRON DINKA DUK AND TWIC. WHEN THE NUER WERE TOO STRONG FOR TWIC EAST AND DUK AFTER TOUGH RESISTENCE WERE PUSHED TO MADING BOR AND THE WHOLE OF BOR COUNTY WAS OVERRAN BY NUER IN SINGLE DAY ALL THE WAY TO MONGALLA BEFORE THEY WHERE SENT BACK BY FEARLESS TIGER COMMANDER BIOR AJANG AND AYUEN JOGAAK FROM DINKA TWIC EAST AND DUK RESPECTIVELY.
    FINALLY DONT FOOL YOURSELF THAT TWIC IS PART OF BOR BECAUSE TWIC ARE HONEST AND BRAVE PEOPLE UNLIKE YU BLOODY COWARD WHO SELL THIER CHILDREN TO MURLE ESPECIALLY THOSE CROOK TEETH THIEVES FRO ANYIDI OR PALEK OR GOK IN PARTICULAR.

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    • 30 August 2011 09:05, by dengtaath

      Candaai?O?
      What history? first of all stop composing lenths essays, we don’t have time to read your psychotic paranoid.Dr.Machar’s apology, Real people do apologise to seek the way forward for the nation, those who refute to Dr.apology by rejecting it, people like you and Dinka dominated his ass, are completely mental sick and all will go to hell my man undstand? Dinka did died as people in Dorong, Thiajak, Luel and others places such as Baliet (atrocities committed by George Thor, central Nuer and the likes had happened. Each death brough sorrow to our communities, no one single death is small or less important. take it or leave, what history are talking about? Am not telling you that am educated or not an educated, but judge your understanding on issues facing our communities, will the apologies reconcile the people or will your mental insistant of hatred solve the differences we have? My friend, you are the most un educated man on the earth if you fail to understand the best behind that apology. My conclusion is that go to hell with your mental illness

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      • 30 August 2011 20:37, by Cadaai ?o?

        Dengtaath

        Historian and Idnetity Advocacy View:

        Just only to response to point of yours stating that, "Dinka Twic East wouldn’t survive if Dinka Bor is not at their back". That’s laughable.

        You seem like professionel person based on your respect, so I will go into bad talk.

        To be honest with you, I am not a problem if you believe in truth and not those who believes in lies or ignorant.

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    • 30 August 2011 20:25, by Cadaai ?o?

      Thank you very MonyjangChol

      Historian and Identity Advocacy View:

      If you are truly rights when you say, "Truth hurt...".

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  • 30 January 2013 17:17, by maropl

    Flattering and contradicting yourself in the way you’ve done is infantile and does not deserve response, however for right or wrong you get to know two things: first, that your likes are extremely few in our katalog stron world today; second, that any speculative effect of your opinions is dwindling to nothing.

    repondre message

  • 11 April 2013 21:55, by dennishobson

    0X41823jdAGyPvBjSvhkzEIqQ4IuD3ssanyong madeira plastica composite decking very nice post, i certainly love this website, keep on it

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