Home | News    Saturday 13 April 2013

SPLM-N rebels gain upper hand in S. Kordofan: report


April 12, 2013 (KHARTOUM) – Rebel fighters from the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) appear to have made significant gains in the first year of renewed fighting in Sudan’s South Kordofan and Blue Nile states, according to a new report.

South Kordofan State in red (Disputed Abyei Area in pink)

The working paper, ‘New War, Old Enemies: Conflict Dynamics in South Kordofan’,
examines the first year of the conflict from June 2011–July 2012, finding that some 30,000 of its troops and allied forces had captured a large part of the Nuba Mountains area, despite being unable to match the superior fire power of the Sudanese army (SAF).

The report, which was carried out by the Small Arms Survey as part of its Human Security Baseline Assessment (HSBA) for Sudan and South Sudan project, focuses on the dynamics of the conflict and the cross-border implications for both Sudans.

Although rebels failed to hold onto major towns and lowland areas, the report found that the SPLM-N still held the military balance of power in the Nuba Mountains a year after war erupted in the region.

“Many observers say the rebels know the territory better, are highly motivated, and have better training than the SAF-affiliated militias,” the report said.

“Although the rebel fighters’ weapons are inferior, especially given SAF’s ability to resupply troops and their uncontested airpower, the SPLM-N has been successful in capturing SAF equipment and vehicles”, it added.


Conflict erupted in South Kordofan in June 2011, just prior to the South seceding from the north in July. Within a few months the conflict had also spread to neighbouring Blue Nile state.

Southern aligned fighters fought alongside South Sudan in their struggle for independence, but were left north of the border after partition.

Sudan has repeatedly accused Juba of backing its former allies operating in South Kordofan and Blue Nile states.

However, researchers found that post-independence there was little evidence to support claims the South Sudanese government was supplying weapons to the SPLM-N, though some political and logistical support is evident.

Rather, weapons and vehicles seized from the SAF in the period between June 2011 and April 2012 had inadvertently provided the SPLM-N with their most valuable military resources.

These included significant quantities of small calibre ammunition, mortar bombs, anti-tank rockets and shells, as well as weapons, including grenade launchers, mortars, canons, and T-55 tanks.

“The rebels were able to regularly reinforce their military means, using SAF as an effective, although unwilling, supplier”, researchers said.

According to the report, the SPLM-N became increasingly radical in its push for regime change in the first year of conflict, with the deteriorating relationship between the Sudans and the subsequent shutdown in oil production last January leading to an unprecedented economic crisis, proving particularly favourable for the rebel movement.

“The supply of weapons lies at the heart of these renewed and more radical ambitions: the ‘new war’ is between old enemies but these old rivals are now better equipped and, ironically, both benefit from the Sudanese government’s supply chain”, the report said.

It also noted that a small contingent of fighters from the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), one of several rebel groups fighting a decade-long war against Khartoum in Sudan’s western region of Darfur, had been crucial to SPLM-N gains in the region.

“Although numerically far inferior to the SPLM-N, JEM has provided crucial support to rebels in South Kordofan and its involvement has proved decisive in key battles,” the report said.

It added Kordofan forces, comprising largely of Missiriya and Nuba elements, typically operate as a kind of cavalry, employing the same mobile fighting tactics the movement has used in Darfur.


The report found that SAF superiority in South Kordofan is limited to its control of the skies and that widespread bombing campaigns had succeeded only in terrorising and displacing the local population, rather than any significant military gains.

There is strong evidence that SAF has employed cluster bombs and incendiary weapons in South Kordofan, with the report noting that “the use of such weapons, in particular against civilian populations, may constitute a violation of international humanitarian law.

The Small Arms Survey heard several statements about the possible use of chemical weapons on both sides of the Sudan–South Sudan border, but was unable to verify these reports.

However, several SPLM-N and South Sudan army soldiers who took part in direct confrontations against SAF in April 2012 reported cases of poisoning, sometimes leading to death, resulting from the inhalation of fumes released from SAF-fired artillery bombs.

Medical personnel who treated more than 40 soldiers injured in battles in the Tolodi and Heglig areas confirmed the nature of these symptoms, saying they were likely caused by organo-phosphate poisoning, although comprehensive tests were not available.

Researchers said the resumption of fighting has had a devastating impact on civilians, with SPLM-N-linked sources estimating that by mid-December 2012 some 736,000 “vulnerable” people within the Nuba Mountains’ so-called liberated areas were in urgent need of relief, while around 436,000 of these had been displaced within rebel-held areas. The government, which has no real access to rebel areas, put the number of displaced at 42,150. The SPLM-N sources say the entire population of SPLM-N-controlled areas in South Kordofan, estimated at 995,000 people, have been affected by the conflict.


The report notes that solving the north-South conflict will not alone be sufficient to end the problems in South Kordofan.

It says Khartoum’s assertions that northern rebels are merely proxies of South Sudan is simplistic, adding that despite the important links between them, the SPLM-N has a distinct political and military agenda from that of the Southern army (SPLA).

The report describes the ongoing conflict in South Kordofan as “largely, a continuation of the previous civil war”, saying “the new war involves old enemies, who know and distrust each other more than ever, making both sides more radical and less susceptible to pressure for a serious peace process”.

Ongoing conflict in the region, it continues, will continue to have serious ramifications on the security of both Sudan and South Sudan.

“The conflict in South Kordofan is, in the first place, an internal Sudanese issue rather than a mere ramification of north-South tensions. Even if South Sudan further severs its links to the SPLM-N, the war, with an increasingly national agenda, will continue to threaten both national and regional stability,” it said.


Comments on the Sudan Tribune website must abide by the following rules. Contravention of these rules will lead to the user losing their Sudan Tribune account with immediate effect.

- No inciting violence
- No inappropriate or offensive language
- No racism, tribalism or sectarianism
- No inappropriate or derogatory remarks
- No deviation from the topic of the article
- No advertising, spamming or links
- No incomprehensible comments

Due to the unprecedented amount of racist and offensive language on the site, Sudan Tribune tries to vet all comments on the site.

There is now also a limit of 400 words per comment. If you want to express yourself in more detail than this allows, please e-mail your comment as an article to comment@sudantribune.com

Kind regards,

The Sudan Tribune editorial team.
  • 13 April 2013 10:00, by steven

    Hopefully the security of the citizens won’t come in question ...

    repondre message

  • 13 April 2013 10:09, by Mohammed Ali 2

    The title is the wishful dream of Sudan Tribune! Nothing in the report mentioned that they have the upper hand. How could they have the upper hand if they couldn’t control a single town? Yes they can stay high in the mountain because it is difficult to access these areas, they will just hit and run disturbing the peace of civillians and hindering development.

    repondre message

    • 13 April 2013 12:42, by Kushoku

      Hope u calm down and the news again when they bombarding kadugli ,hit and run is the way war is it when a rebilion broke u r not fighting aregular of another country ,they r ur countrymen try to surfive agenocidal extrimination war against their exesistance

      repondre message

    • 13 April 2013 13:30, by South South

      Mohammed Ali2,
      This is the news I want to hear because go to the. Fucking fake Arabs is what make me sleep well, no problem now, black people are gaining power in Sudan

      repondre message

Comment on this article

The following ads are provided by Google. SudanTribune has no authority on it.

Sudan Tribune

Promote your Page too

Latest Comments & Analysis

False escape of Peter Biar Ajak from South Sudan to America 2020-08-07 15:58:45 By Steve Paterno In a dramatic fashion, Peter Biar Ajak, a South Sudanese political dissident, wrote an opinion article in World Street Journal (WSJ), published on July 23, 2020, the same day he (...)

How we can construct a shared vision for South Sudan’s future? 2020-08-01 09:21:58 David Nyuol Vincent To craft a shared vision for the future of South Sudan is difficult but not impossible. To surpass the perilous situation in which we are in now, we need to learn to (...)

Establish capable security force in Darfur 2020-08-01 07:43:40 By Mahmoud A. Suleiman The Darfur region is destined to continue bleeding. Those who believe in that openly say whether Omer Al-Bashir is still in the rule of Sudan or deposed, the region of (...)


Latest Press Releases

S. Korea supports UN communities building resilience project in Sudan’s Blue Nile 2019-09-09 09:26:41 UNDP Sudan September 5, 2019 (KHARTOUM) - An agreement was signed on 5th of September between the Korean Ambassador, His Excellency. Lee Ki-Seong and Dr. Selva Ramachandran, Resident (...)

Sudanese lawyers and Human rights defenders back calls for civil rule 2019-04-26 10:22:06 Press statement by 55 Sudanese lawyers and Human rights defenders on Sudan Sit-in and Peaceful Protest Khartoum -24/04/2019 We, the undersigned (55) Sudanese lawyers and human rights defenders, (...)

South Sudan’s Lafon youth condemn killings of civilians by Pari community 2019-04-03 21:54:29 Press Statement on the Fighting between Pari/ Pacidi and Lotuko/Lokiri on 24/3/2019 Release by The Lafon County Youth Union: We, the Lafon County Youth Union hereby condemn the atrocities and (...)


Copyright © 2003-2020 SudanTribune - All rights reserved.