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IGAD tells South Sudan to suspend 28 states until review


January 31, 2016 (ADDIS ABABA) – The East African regional block, the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), has urged President Salva Kiir and his government to “suspend” the implementation of the 28 states he created, saying the decision was “inconsistent” with the peace agreement signed by warring parties in August 2015.

An extraordinary session of the IGAD heads of states meeting in the Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa (IGAD File photo)

In a communiqué released on Sunday after two days of meeting of the IGAD Council of Ministers, an IGAD policy-making body with membership of foreign ministers from its member states, the regional bloc also urged the parties to the agreement to soon form a transitional government of national unity (TGoNU) at the national level.

The statement said IGAD is concerned by the decision of President Kiir’s government to implement the order.

“Concerned by the recent decision of the Government of South Sudan to implement the October 2, 2015 Presidential Decree on the creation of 28 new states, given that such action is insistent with the terms of ARCSS [Agreement on Resolution of Conflict in South Sudan,” partly reads the statement, dated 31 January, seen by Sudan Tribune on Sunday.

It called on the parties, the government, the armed opposition faction of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM-IO), and other partners in peace, to instead form a boundary commission with membership of all the parties to the peace agreement and review the process for creation of new states.

“Urges the Parties, subsequent to the formation of TGoNU at national level, in the absence of agreement on the creation of new states, to suspend further action implementing the operationalization of new states until an inclusive, participatory National Boundary Commission comprising all parties to ARCSS reviews proposed states and their boundaries, and that this review process occur, for a period of up to one month,” it said.

The statement further said in case the parties to the agreement will not agree on proposed states, they will revert to the provisions of the agreement which is based on 10 states.

“Indicates to the Parties that in the event there are outstanding disputes at the end of the boundary review process, the Parties should revert to the provisions of the Agreement.”

IGAD however urged the parties to amend the constitution by incorporating the peace agreement into the constitution, but added that the parties should form a transitional unity government, even if there is no constitution in place, using the peace agreement as the supreme document, at least at the national level.

It however emphasized that the two parties should first deploy their joint integrated forces in the capital, Juba, as the first phase in the implementation of the peace agreement before a transitional unity government can be formed, further urging the parties to deploy the forces in Juba in the first week of February.

“Calls on the Parties to immediately implement, by no later than the first week of February 2016, the first phase of the Transitional Security Arrangements for Juba in order to provide for the establishment, without further delay, of the TGoNU,” says the communiqué.

The statement by IGAD, which mediated the peace talks for two years resulting to the peace agreement, implies that once joint forces are deployed in the capital, the parties should form the government at the national level as the 28 states are suspended and boundary body of membership of all the parties review the process.

As the regional body seems to encourage dialogue on creation of more states, it also recommends reverting to the existing 10 states should there be no agreement among the parties on the new states to create.

The 55th extraordinary session of IGAD foreign ministers also discussed peace and security in Somalia.


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  • 31 January 2016 22:29, by Dinka-Defender-General

    Sorry IGAD, I was not president Kiir who created the 28 states, but the people. Therefore, stop your baseless requested. We, the people are happy with our new states and nothing you can do about it. We are independent country and we have all the rights to make our decisions. Also 28 states are not problem, but Machar, his supporters, and you.

    • 31 January 2016 23:47, by Malakal county Simon

      Good call, upopular 28 States is derailing the compromise peace...... Let’s it be discuss later after peace other 21States......

      • 1 February 2016 05:14, by Mi diit

        This is a great diplomatic victory in the face of the absent Kiir Kuethpiny and his lying Benjamin Marial, who only went to Addis to drink and lie to Kiir back home.

        IGAD should now make sure the 28 states and their thievery 28 governors are suspended forever.

        • 1 February 2016 05:21, by Mi diit


          Stop lying. Dinkas alone are not the people of South Sudan. If you are happy because Kiir grabbed others lands for you, the rest are not happy and ready to take back their lands by any means.

          When did the people conduct referendum on 28 states?

          And when did these so-called people wake up to demand more states when Kiir refused 21 states proposed by Dr. Machar just months ago

          • 1 February 2016 06:16, by Dinka-Defender-General

            Brainless Mi Diit, in democracy society, citizens elect representatives to represent them in locally and nationally. Therefore, citizens talked to their representatives while you, Machar, and his supporters were busying fighting and killing innocent people. So don’t blame president Kiir and government, but blame citizens.

            • 1 February 2016 16:14, by Whortti Bor Manza

              Jienge Defender, come you insane idiot. The Jieng council, a coterie of selfish Dinka tribesmen, very egocentric, predatory and lazy people always bickering for food and dollars are the owners of the 28 states. Shame on you. who are people Kiir consulted? Dinka areas are always prone to hunger and starvation. You should thank Omer El Bashir who has opened the borders to feed you.

          • 1 February 2016 06:28, by Dinka-Defender-General

            Mi Diit, just get over 28 states and move on. Can you show us the land that was grabbed from your land by Dinkas. In south Sudan, every tribes know which land is theirs and which one is not theirs. My friend, you should blame God for creating Dinkas on the top rich soils/oil/diamond land.

          • 1 February 2016 09:29, by Shadrack Nuer Machut

            Don’t be overexcited for nothing. You will never achieve ur daylight dreams. It’s easier said than done my friend. You killed, looted, destroyed people’s properties & displaced populations and now think you can make 28 states like ur rebellions, you are great liars.
            It is good that you have taught people how to sabotage.

        • 1 February 2016 06:04, by Force 1


          Are you still arguing over 28 States? Everyone started work in their own 28 States. Please you’re just wasting your time on something that is ireversable. You should be going to your state and start working. What are you afraid of in your own states? Is it because you’re going to fail governing yourselves alone? Who cares if you do!

        • 1 February 2016 09:19, by Shadrack Nuer Machut

          We know very well that Igad listens better to people who use force than dialogue.
          Any way Ethiopia is Ethiopia and South Sudan is South Sudan.
          Let’s wait until it happens and we see which one is better than another between Riak’s claims to reverse 28 states and their existence. Riak & Igad have just reached the so called ’Red Line.’

    • 1 February 2016 06:40, by Eastern

      Ya ignorant Dinka-something,

      This is a real victory over dinkocracy scored by IGAD, those opposed to only-Dinka proposed 28 ethnic enclaves. The madness must stop for now.

      If more states must be created, it must be done in a participatory way involving all communities not just dinkas. Great news of the year so far!!!!

      • 1 February 2016 09:51, by Shadrack Nuer Machut

        What type of victory in bushes? you first get hold of Juba before you claim victory. Remember, this’s not a word from Igad but IO. It is not a new call or demand by IO but it was there since the Establishment Order No 36 up to the appointment of governors. Why do you call it a victory? Even rebels like it but b’se Riak’s 21 states are made 28 they say no. We too say NO to reversal.

    • 1 February 2016 10:14, by Akuma

      “It has to be made clear that the cancellation of 28 states as Riek Machar wishes will never happen. It is better for heaven and earth to end than for the Establishment Order to be revoked,” said Buay on Saturday. IGAD should know that South Sudan is not an Island. It has a constitution and sovereignty to do things that favor its citizens.

      • 1 February 2016 10:28, by Eastern


        I like your vow on this....."it’s better for heaven ........than for the Establishment Order to be revoked". Wake up to the glaring reality. Your cattle camp leader is being told not to run the country the cattle camp way. Does that now make any sense?

        • 1 February 2016 13:55, by Force 1


          Go to the country where you going to be told by foreigners how to run your country but that wouldn’t be here in South Sudan!
          We are not in the 19th century time when foreigners use to run and ruined Africa. Your slave’s mentality no longer exists in today’s Africa. Go somewhere else!

          • 1 February 2016 14:53, by Eastern

            Force 1,

            You must be out of your mind really. What foriegn country are you talking about? UN, the AU and IGAD. Are these foreign bodies really? South Sudan is a member of the UN, IGAD and AU. So any decision made by them on South Sudan must be binding; such decisions should be seen as collective and binding but not foreign as you alluded to!!

            • 1 February 2016 19:09, by Force 1


              To be a foreigner; you don’t have to be a European or whatever. You can be a Kenyan and a foreigner to South Sudan and so do South Sudan to Kenya or any other African country. You see; who is now out of his mind!

              • 2 February 2016 11:00, by Eastern

                Force 1,

                You are clearly a village wannabe. Iam talking about IGAD, UN and AU; not the Kenyans, etc sitting in them! South Sudan is a member of these bodies I have indicated. See who is green horne here?

    • 1 February 2016 11:11, by jur_likang_a_ likan’g

      "We, the people are happy with our new states and nothing you can do about it" I quote one lunatic from Jieng people declared. The question is, which people created a Salva Kiir solitary decree decision on a gigantic matter of the people of South Sudan without a referundum? Is Salva Kiir or JCE the people? Ya awiir inta!! Do not play with our country. It is not your cattle kraal.

    • 1 February 2016 17:38, by Developer

      Do you think inexperienced uneducated president Kiir has more power than IGAD? Enough is enough, Many people got kill during the night by dinka national security officers when they are looting people in Juba. People are suffering due to lack of food coz it is expensive to buy. You dinka must stop talking this stupids idea of 28 states.

      • 1 February 2016 19:21, by Force 1


        It’s been over 24 months since the December 2013 coup attempt; what did the IGAD or the UN do? The UN and IGAD don’t have any power to force any leader out of power? Second of all; the 28 states are here to stay and your opposition to them will only be the song you’ll just be singing for the rest of your life and nothing you can do about it!

  • 31 January 2016 23:29, by Mr Point

    Kiir’s bankrupt state is diplomatically isolated.

    South Sudan came to life with help from the IGAD states. What has Kiir done to turn them away?

    • 31 January 2016 23:51, by Uncle J

      Mr Point

      Was Riek turning IGAD away when he first created the 21 states? Riek tactics to win everything he wants using this peace is too much relying on foreign nations, anyway let him win and at the end of the day he will return and live within South Sudan with the people of South Sudan.

      • 1 February 2016 02:51, by Dinka-Defender-General

        Machar doesn’t know what he wants. He jumps from one corner to another. What I learned from Machar since 1991 until now is that he locks vision. He doesn’t know that God wants him to fisherman or cattle keeper not politician. To be a leader, you have to love people which he locks. My message to nuer people is that Ngundeng meant different Riek Machar not this risk Machar. You guys have to wait for

      • 1 February 2016 03:21, by lino

        Machar suggested 21 States but never created it. We better understand things thick headed people!!!
        Kiir is in violation, period!!!

        • 1 February 2016 03:41, by Force 1

          @ Lino, what’s your thin-headed argument against 28 States?
          Make a reasonable argument first and the question of whether or not you are highly irrational is going to be seen in your argument. Tell us at least three points as to why you are against the 28 States!

          • 1 February 2016 04:32, by lino

            Baby force 1, here are the reasons for You:
            1- Nothing called 21 or 28 States in the Peace Agreement.
            2- It was a decree from one Man Show, and people were not asked by a Referendum like your separation.
            2- No study was done as whether this can of creation is an invitation for another crisis among communities; boundaries will be a big issue to resolve.
            I hope you get it by now.

            • 1 February 2016 04:44, by Force 1


              Well if that’s the case, do you what reservation means when president Kiir signed peace with reservation?
              First of all know what words means in any agreement before jumping into any argument irrationally.

              • 1 February 2016 05:36, by lino

                Hahaha brother Force 1, but his reservations were Not part of the Agreement that was forced on leaders. Tell me who initialed those reservation papers??!
                This is called political immaturity; remember, he was told right away on the table that no one will consider these reservation s; the agreement was either to take as it is or leave it!!!
                I hope you understood these words my boy!!!

            • 1 February 2016 05:35, by Force 1

              To say "nothing called 21 or 28 States in a peace agreement" is not a reasonable argument; this is like saying "nothing called the sun raise from the east and set in the west" that would be highly irrational argument because people would be laughing at you.

            • 1 February 2016 16:53, by what the hell

              Did the Sudanese government asked anyone permission when the created 10 states their was no referendum and nun of you disputed
              Riek machar created 21 states with governors and commissions

        • 1 February 2016 03:46, by Dinka-Defender-General

          Do you remember that president Kiir was elected by popular vote and for that reason he has to discharge by the people not rebellion. This is where you, Machar, and supporters got wrong. The word is vote so wait for election day to remove and I will agree with you and Machar. You don’t understand Dinkas. Majority don’t want him to remain pres...

          • 1 February 2016 04:36, by lino

            The Vote ended last year brother; even Bashair of Sudan was smart to renew his assignment. Kiir was not voted in for live; may be he forgot that the mandate was over!!!

  • 1 February 2016 03:46, by Force 1

    All I know is; the people are already working in their 28 States and those who don’t like their for the fear being a failure in their own states is just going to be their problems. You can’t complain that the country is not being run properly when can’t run a state.

  • 1 February 2016 06:33, by marie

    Which people are working in their states? The last time I checked, I found all the people from the other states refusing to leave the land of other people. This idea of the states is just political for dominance in the legislation not for development. Mark my words. It is actually time that we have a new government. The mandate of the president government and legislation expired long time ago.

    • 1 February 2016 07:03, by Force 1


      Who else is known to be dominance in the country other than the people you already know? Is the question of who is dominance in South Sudan ever been in doubt? What percent is Dinka in the country compared to any rival to Dinka? To answer these question you don’t have to be knowledgeable!

      • 1 February 2016 15:49, by marie

        Force 1,
        Dinka is 15% in South Sudan and Nuer is 12%, but Dinka claim that they are half the population of South Sudan. If you have the opportunity of touring their places, they are all empty. Where are the Dinka that you are talking about as the majority?

        • 1 February 2016 19:36, by Force 1


          If Dinka is only 15% of South Sudan then don’t stop there break it all down the rest of 85% of the population and tell us who will be the majority and with what percentage over the Dinka? The current population of South Sudan is 11.978 millions.

  • 1 February 2016 06:34, by marie

    Which people are working in their states? The last time I checked, I found all the people from the other states refusing to leave the land of other people. This idea of the states is just political for dominance in the legislation not for development. Mark my words. It is actually time that we have a new government. The mandate of the president government and legislation expired long time ago.

    • 1 February 2016 07:05, by Dinka-Defender-General

      Marie, you have to tour the new states to find out. Where were you when governors took oath? You are behind calendar sister. You shouldn’t be sitting and refused to accept the facts. Call your state to find out your new governor.

  • 1 February 2016 06:39, by hamil

    This idea of 28 states is not Salva Kiir’s idea the problem here is he allowed himself to be swung from this end to the other by the Jieng Council of Elders it seems Salva can’t make a bold decision by himself these days wihout the JCE’s interference. These crappy 28 states is the JCE who want breed hatred among the Dinka and the rest of the tribes in South Sudan.

    • 1 February 2016 06:44, by hamil

      Their claim of lying to the world and South Sudanese that it is the peopl’s demand does not sink into the mind of an intelligent person but a fool. We have never heard of South Sudanese demanding for more States but we have countless times herad them asking for Federal System of Government now this is the real demand. I have no problem with more States but they are being created at the wrong time

      • 1 February 2016 06:48, by hamil

        Bring peace into this Nation first and then embark on your 28 States when this country is fully reconciled if they want to create 28 or 120 States that is up to them but first PEACE and not STATES

        • 1 February 2016 07:08, by Force 1


          When we were fighting in the last 20 months with its lack of peace and reconciliation; was it because we have created 28 states? The 10 states we had in the last 11 years didn’t give us peace and less war. What make you think doing the same thing would give us different result?
          Your argument against 28 states doesn’t make any sense!

          • 1 February 2016 07:18, by hamil

            @Force 1

            So what makes sense to you huh? Someone woke up one morning sat down with his Counsil of Elders who are his immediate advisors discusses one or 2 points and then took the nation by surprise by announcing a pathetic decree and you call that sense? Really? Let me tell you something buddy I love this country and all its people more than you perhaps and you know why

            • 1 February 2016 07:24, by hamil

              It is because my grandfather bled and lost his life in the battlefield I did not live to see him, my own father lost his life in the battlefield in the late 80’s when I was barely 11 years old my elder brother was killed in Torit in the early 90s and the one I followed at birth has his leg amputated after serving as a Soldier in the SPLA. I have every reason to vent my frustration

              • 1 February 2016 07:29, by hamil

                Because I know this Nation bled dearly your own kind bled and lost millions of lives for to pave way for you and me who are the current generation but if things move this way does it put a smile on your face? No it does I have love for this Nation and its people regardless of the tribes. I want to confess to you today that I had my school fees paid for by a good hearted and generous Dinka man

                • 1 February 2016 07:35, by hamil

                  For 6 years of my secondary school education in the mid and late 90s that is why I sometimes oppose many of my fellow Equatorians and particulaarly people from Yei where I come from when they talk ill against all Dinkas because I dined and lived with a Dinka family for long and learnt their language too. That is the spirit we want but I am afraid that you @Force 1 is taking the tribal route

        • 1 February 2016 07:12, by hamil

          And for those who claim other people are working in their States I want to tell you that all your worthless hand-picked boot-licking Governors are in Juba. These 28 States are nothing but a political Drama we want inclusivity and wide participation of all South Sudan communities in fragmentation of the 10 States but anything done for show of power is dictatorship

          • 1 February 2016 09:25, by Dinka-Defender-General

            Thank you that are generous Dinkas in your end. To tell you the truth, not all Dinkas support president Kiir. Personally, I oppose him and Machar. Furthermore, you guys don’t know how painful it is to fight against your people. It hurts especially for generals in command like me.

  • 1 February 2016 13:48, by Kalo

    To all Junubien,what brought the issue of 28 states is the ethnic cleanse/tribal killing in South Sudan e,g when conflict erupted in greater upper Nile, all Dinka in Akobo,Bentiu,Bor,Nasir,Malakal etc killed by Nuer,all Nuer in Fariang,Yida,most in Juba etc killed by Dinka,all Dinka in Kodok,Tunja,kaka killed by Shuluk,some Shuluk in Paloach,Malut killed by Dinka,Nuer also killed Shuluk in Malaka

    • 1 February 2016 13:56, by Kalo

      It is better for each tribe to has its own state in order to avoid brutal killing,the issue of tribal killing was also carried out in Rumbek and recently in Western Equatoria,now it is starting b/n Anuak and Nuer at greater Akobo,it is too early for the SS tribes to be combine in one state ,inclusion,Riek was the one taught S.Sudanese who to killed each other by starting in 1991 at Bor and Nasir.

  • 1 February 2016 16:59, by marie

    Maybe the solution to South Sudan is not only states but separate countries for the tribes conglomerated by colonial powers. South Sudan is not homogeneous and the people have different perspective of live, so it is difficult to horde them in one country South Sudan. Look at West Africa with tiny nations. I am sure if South Sudan is divided, each nation will be viable. Land, water and people.

    • 1 February 2016 18:26, by Kalo

      Marie,this is impossible for S.S to be divide into small nations,if did not manage to control states what about nations?
      Son of Nuba

  • 1 February 2016 19:43, by marie

    There is no impossibilities in the case of South Sudan. A nation to be viable just needs three things; Land, water and people. There are even some countries in the world without abundant water but they are still viable. Equatoria alone can have three countries. There is enough resource for the people in that part of region to survive. Just have a look at Gambia, Gabo, Sao Tome etc.

    • 1 February 2016 20:01, by Force 1


      A country cannot just happened the way you go to supermarket and get a loaf of bread; it cost lives; millions dies during the liberation of South Sudan. But you probably don’t have any clue because you might have been born or grew up in a foreign country. Having a country is not something you can just asked and happened magically within hours, days or in a year!

  • 1 February 2016 20:21, by marie

    Force 1
    You are the one who grew up in the camps. I am sure if I ask you about the history of Southern Sudan prior to independence, you have no clue. I will give you details of first Southern Sudan government that I witnessed not this mess of SPLA. People did die during that time as well. It is the inherent rights of people to live the way they want. South did not want to live with North.

  • 1 February 2016 20:22, by marie

    South seceded because it feels it is marginalized. If any people in the South at the moment feel they are marginalized, they have the rights to secede either through peaceful means or bullets if that is what you implying to.

    • 1 February 2016 20:45, by Force 1


      Well; the secession will never happened through peaceful mean; because it were that easy; we would have had it 1955 when Lagu started it and in 1983 when John Garang started it either.
      So; the second option which is by bullets; I wish you good luck if you’re not going to run to foreign countries like you did in 1980s and 90s!
      Talking about it is one thing but doing it is another story!

    • 1 February 2016 20:46, by Lotodo Awino Odug

      Force I is a real force to reckon with! and tomorrow I will logically shut down all of you about the issue of these 28 states. you are not kids to be allow to confuse the" people"president every now then.

  • 1 February 2016 21:13, by marie

    Force 1,

    Who are the people who actually ran all over the world because of the war? Check Kakuma, Uganda, Kenya, USA, Australia, Canada, The Arab world. Give me a name in the present government of Salva Kiir and I will tell you where they have been hiding and now claiming to be liberators. A few were actually in the Bush (Nairobi).

    • 1 February 2016 22:58, by Force 1


      I thought you were saying Dinka are not the majority in South Sudan! Now you’re telling me are everywhere in the world. If Dinka weren’t the ones who liberated South Sudan then tell me who did!

  • 1 February 2016 23:01, by marie

    Force 1
    They are all over the world because they escaped the brunt of the war to hide. The real people who fought are all demobilized after the peace agreement with the North. Remember, Bashir was not defeated in the war but an agreement was signed for peaceful settlement. Apart from Rumbek, tell me which Dinka area you liberated and I will tell you the area liberated by our forces.

    • 2 February 2016 00:31, by Force 1


      Remember Bashir accept an agreement because the gun was being held on his head by SPLA! If Bashir accept an agreement the way you said it; then how come he didn’t do it right away the first time he came to power in 1989? >>>>>

      • 2 February 2016 00:37, by Force 1

        >>>> Here are few of the places or towns we liberated since the movement began 1983; Bor, Akobo, Kurmuk, Nasir, Pochalla, Buma, Kapoeta, Mongala, Nimule, Torit, Yei, Kajokeji, Terekeka where I was born; you see just to name a few! I told you before that you were born in a foreign country therefore you can’t tell me any I don’t know about the SPLM/A history. Go challenge someone else! #Marie

  • 2 February 2016 16:05, by marie

    Understand my statement, which Dinka towns did you liberate. Bor was never occupied by SPLA. All the towns you mentioned are in Equatoria, this tells something.

    • 2 February 2016 19:01, by Force 1


      The Arabs armies were the ones who occupy those towns; that’s why SPLA liberate them otherwise we wouldn’t liberate them if only Equatorians living in them. In case of what you called Dinka towns; Rumbeek, Bortown, Awiel, Tonj were occupied by Arabs armies and we kick them out as well. Bortown was captured in 1989; you don’t have any clue about the history; you were not born in South Sudan

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